Some sources state he was born in Indian Territory.
died 80 CE
died 78 CE
Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon17.html With the death of his father Svein Forkbeard, Canute (Knut Sveinsson) with drew from England to Denmark. There, he gathered his forces, came ba ck to England in 1015 and took control of virtually the whole country, exc ept for the city of London. Canute (reigned 1016-35) became undisputed Ki ng of England, and his rivals (Ethelred's surviving sons and Edmund's so n) fled abroad. In 1018, the last Danegeld of 82,500 pounds was paid to Ca nute. Ruthless but capable, Canute consolidated his position by marrying E thelred's widow Emma (Canute's first English partner - the Church did n ot recognize her as his wife - was set aside, later appointed regent of No rway). During his reign, Canute also became King of Denmark and Norway; h is inheritance and formidable personality combined to make him overlo rd of a huge northern empire. During his inevitable absences in Scandinavia, Canute used powerful Engli sh and Danish earls to assist in England's government - English law and me thods of government remained unchanged. A second-generation Christian for reasons of politics as well as faith, Ca nute went on pilgrimage to Rome in 1027-8. (It was allegedly Christian hum ility which made him reject his courtiers' flattery by demonstrating th at even he could not stop the waves; later hostile chroniclers were to cla im it showed madness.) Canute was buried at Winchester. Given that there w as no political or governmental unity within his empire, it failed to surv ive his sons by his two queens (Harold Harefoot (reigned 1035-40) and Hart hacnut (reigned 1040-42)) and the factions led by the semi-independent Ear ls of Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex.
Swabia (sw´b) (KEY) , Ger. Schwaben, historic region, mainly in S Baden-Wü rttemberg and SW Bavaria, SW Germany. It is bounded in the east by Upper B avaria, in the west by France, and in the south by Switzerland and Austri a. It includes the former Prussian province of Hohenzollern. The main phys ical features of Swabia are the Black Forest; the valley of the upper Danu be River, which rises there; the Swabian Jura, a mountain range that exten ds parallel to and N of the Danube; and the valley of the upper Neckar Riv er. The Rhine and Lake Constance (sometimes called the Swabian Sea) form t he western and southern borders. The easternmost section of Swabia is pa rt of the Danubian plateau of Bavaria and is a Bavarian province (c.3,9 40 sq mi/10,205 sq km), with Augsburg as capital. History Swabia is rich in history and is a treasury of German architecture. Settl ed in the 3d cent. by the Germanic Suebi and Alemanni during the great mig rations, the region was also known as Alamannia until the 11th cent. (T he Alemannic, or Swabian, dialects of the various regions of Swabia [in i ts largest sense] remain linguistically closely related.) It became o ne of the five basic or stem duchies of medieval Germany in the 9th cent ., when it far exceeded its present boundaries, including also Alsace a nd Switzerland E of the Reuss River. In 1079 the duchy was bestowed on t he house of Hohenstaufen, which in 1138 also obtained the imperial title. On the extinction (1268) of the dynasty, Swabia broke up into small tempor al and ecclesiastic lordships and lost its political identity. The Swiss p art became independent in 1291 and the Hapsburg territories in Alsace pass ed to France in 1648, but Breisgau and the other Hapsburg domains in S Bad en remained Austrian until 18036, except from 1469 to 1477, when they we re ruled by Charles the Bold of Burgundy. The rest of Swabia was held in l arge part by the counts (later dukes) of Württemberg, by the margrav es of Baden-Durlach, by the landgraves of Fürstenberg, by the princes of H ohenzollern, by the bishops of Strasbourg, Konstanz (Constance), and Augsb urg, by several powerful abbeys, and by a multitude of petty princes, coun ts, and knights. Most of the Swabian municipalities had obtained the status of free imperi al cities (i.e., virtually independent republics) by 1300. Among them we re Augsburg, Ulm, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Reutlingen, and Ravensburg. Their weal th, due mainly to commerce and industry, made them the most powerful eleme nt of the country, and they made their superior power felt by forming a se ries of leagues, starting in 1331. The Swabian League of 1376-89 successfu lly opposed Emperor Charles IV but was eventually defeated by the cou nt of Württemberg. The most important Swabian League was that of 1488-1534 . The chief Swabian cities accepted the Reformation in the 16th cent., but t he countryside has remained divided between Catholics and Protestants to t he present day. With the commercial revolution of the 15th and 16th cen t. the Swabian cities temporarily lost most of their importance. (In the 1 9th cent. some, especially Stuttgart, revived as industrial centers.) Wh en the Holy Roman Empire was organized in circles in the 16th cent., the S wabian Circle, similar in extent to the present region, was created. At t he diet of Regensburg of 1801-3, which acted largely under the influen ce of Napoleon I, many of the small ecclesiastic and feudal holdings we re taken over by Baden, Württemberg, and Bavaria. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2002 Columbia Univer sity Press
SOURCE: ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA Byname FREDERICK BARBAROSSA (ITALIAN: REDBEARD) duke of Swabia (as Frederi ck III, 1147-90) and German king and Holy Roman emperor (1152-90), who cha llenged papal authority and sought to establish German predominance in wes tern Europe. He engaged in a long struggle with the cities of northern Ita ly (1154-83), sending six major expeditions southward. He died while on t he Third Crusade to the Holy Land. Early years. Frederick was the son of Frederick II, duke of Swabia, and Judith, daught er of Henry IX, duke of Bavaria, of the rival dynasty of the Welfs. Aft er succeeding his father as duke of Swabia, Frederick was elected German k ing on March 4, 1152, in Frankfurt, succeeding his uncle, Emperor Conrad I II. Frederick's contemporaries believed that, because he united in himse lf the blood of the Welfs and the Hohenstaufen, he would solve the intern al problems of the kingdom. The announcement of his election, which he se nt to Pope Eugenius III, made it plain that Frederick I was not ready to r ecognize the preeminence over the emperors that the popes had won during t he quarrel over the right of investiture of bishops and abbots. Frederic k, moreover, filled several vacant episcopal sees, thereby violating the C oncordat of Worms of 1122. Nevertheless, he was to learn that he could n ot prevail against the papacy as easily as the earlier emperors, Otto I a nd Henry III, had done because the political balance of the West had chang ed. Under the powerful emperor Manuel I Comnenus, the Byzantine Empire h ad grown to be a political factor in the Mediterranean and in Italy. South ern Italy and Sicily were united in the Norman kingdom of Roger II. The ci ties of the Lombards, which had been little more than a nuisance to the ea rlier emperors, had now become invincible. Frederick started his struggle for the old goal of the predominance of t he Empire over the European monarchies with great political skill. By n ot recognizing the treaty of alliance between his predecessor, Conrad II I, and Manuel I Comnenus of Byzantium against Roger II of Sicily, Frederi ck forced Pope Eugenius III to sign the Treaty of Constance (1153) with h im because the Pope was more exposed to pressure from the Norman kingd om to the south as well as from Arnold of Brescia in Rome. Frederick promi sed not to make peace with the Roman commune, headed by Arnold (whom he ha nged) or with the Normans without the agreement of the Pope. He also promi sed not to concede any Italian land to the Byzantine Emperor and, finall y, to maintain the position of the papacy (honor papatus). Eugenius II I, on his part, promised that Frederick would receive the imperial crown a nd that the rights of the empire would be maintained. When Manuel of Byzan tium offered Frederick a Byzantine princess as wife and attempted to indu ce him to fight against the Norman kingdom, Frederick refused. The success or of Eugenius III, Pope Adrian IV, honoured the Treaty of Constance and c rowned Frederick emperor on June 18, 1155, in Rome. The German princes refused to give Frederick the support necessary to atta ck the Sicilian kingdom, which, under Roger's son William I (reigned 1154- 66), was passing through a crisis. Although Manuel now formed an allegian ce with the rebellious Norman barons, the city of Genoa, and the Pope, Adr ian still would not accept the Byzantine offer of help against Willi am I of Sicily. After William had brought his crisis to an end, he was ab le to force the Pope to sign the Concordat of Benevento in 1156 by which A drian gave William Sicily and the Norman principalities on the mainla nd as far north as Naples and Capua and granted him special rights for t he Sicilian church. This new treaty was in violation of the Treaty of Cons tance. Cardinal Roland (later Pope Alexander III) was supposed to expla in the Pope's new policy to the princes and to the Emperor at the imperi al Diet of Besançon 1157. A letter from the Pope, which was translat ed in an inflammatory manner by the imperial chancellor Rainald of Dasse l, caused a critical argument between the papal delegation and the Germ an princes over whether or not the empire was dependent upon the papacy. A drian explained later that he meant the word beneficium, which had caus ed all the trouble, to mean benefit and not fief.
Hohenstaufen Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hohenstaufen Hohenstaufen was a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also cro wned Holy Roman Emperor. The proper name, taken from their castle in Swabi a, is Staufen. When the last member of the Salian dynasty, Henry IV, Holy Roman Empero r, died without an heir there was controversy about the succession. Freder ick and Conrad, the two current male Staufens, were grandsons of Henry II I, Holy Roman Emperor and nephews of Henry IV. After the death of the inte rvening king and emperor Lothar II of Supplinburg, in 1137, Conrad beca me Conrad III of Germany. Conrad III 1138-1155 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Barbarossa, 1155-1190 Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, 1191-1197; Henry VI of Germany, 1190-1197 Philip of Swabia, king 1198-1208 Frederick II, king 1208-1250, emperor after 1220 Conrad IV, king 1237-1254 (under his father) The last Hohenstaufen, Conrad IV, was never crowned emperor. After a 20 ye ar period the first Habsburg was elected king and emperor.
Judith of Swabia Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_of_Swabia Judith (Sophie) of Swabia 1047-1093/1095 was the daughter of Henry II, Ho ly Roman Emperor and his wife Agnes v. Poitou. Judith v. Swabia was first married to Kiraly Salomon (v. Hungary) and th en to Ladislaus I Herman, duke of Poland, the son of Boleslaw III of Polan d.
Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_of_Swabia Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the riv al of the emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor F rederick I and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of Upper Burgundy, a nd consequently brother of the emperor Henry VI. He entered the church, w as made provost of Aix-la-Chapelle, and in 1190 or 1191 was chosen bish op of Wurzburg. Having accompanied his brother Henry to Italy in 1191, Phi lip forsook his ecclesiastical calling, and, travelling again to Italy, w as made duke of Tuscany in 1195 and received an extensive grant of land s. In 1196 he became duke of Swabia, on the death of his brother Conrad; a nd in May 1197 he married Irene, daughter of the eastern emperor, Isaac I I, and widow of Roger II of Sicily, a lady who is described by Walther v on der Vogelweide as " the rose without a thorn, the dove without guile." Philip enjoyed his brother's confidence to a very great extent, and appea rs to have been designated as guardian of the young Frederick, afterwar ds the emperor Frederick II, in case of his father's early death. In 11 97 he had set out to fetch Frederick from Sicily for his coronation wh en he heard of the emperor's death and returned at once to Germany. He app ears to have desired to protect the interests of his nephew and to quell t he disorder which arose on Henry's death, but events were too strong for h im. The hostility to the kingship of a child was growing, and after Phil ip had been chosen as defender of the empire during Frederick's minori ty he consented to his own election. He was elected German king at Muhlhau sen on March 8, 1198, and crowned at Mainz on the September 8 following. Meanwhile a number of princes hostile to Philip, under the leadership of A dolph, archbishop of Cologne, had elected an anti-king in the person of Ot to, second son of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony. In the war that followe d, Philip, who drew his principal support from south Germany, met with con siderable success. In 1199 he received further accessions to his party a nd carried the war into his opponent's territory, although unable to obta in the support of Pope Innocent III, and only feebly assisted by his al ly Philip Augustus, king of France. The following year was less favourab le to his arms; and in March 1201 Innocent took the decisive step of placi ng Philip and his associates under the ban, and began to work energetical ly in favour of Otto. The two succeeding years were still more unfavourab le to Philip. Otto, aided by Ottakarl, king of Bohemia, and Hermann I, lan dgrave of Thuringia, drove him from north Germany, thus compelling h im to seek by abject concessions, but without success, reconciliation wi th Innocent. The submission to Philip of Hermann of Thuringia in 1204 mar ks the turning-point of his fortunes, and he was soon joined by Adol ph of Cologne and Henry I, duke of Brabant. On January 6, 1205 he was crowned again with great ceremony by Adolph at A ix-la-Chapelle, though it was not till 1207 that his entry into Cologne pr actically brought the war to a close. A month or two later Philip was loos ed from the papal ban, and in March 1208 it seems probable that a treaty w as concluded by which a nephew of the pope was to marry one of Philip's da ughters and to receive the disputed dukedom of Tuscany. Philip was prepari ng to crush the last flicker of the rebellion in Brunswick when he was mur dered at Bamberg, on June 21, 1208, by Otto of Wittelsbach, count palati ne in Bavaria, to whom he had refused the hand of one of his daughter s. He left no sons, but four daughters; one of whom, Beatrix, afterwards m arried his rival, the emperor Otto IV. Philip was a brave and handsome ma n, and contemporary writers, among whom was Walther von der Vogelweide, pr aise his mildness and generosity. See W. von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, Bd. V. (Leipz ig, 1888); E. Winkelmann, Philipp von Schwaben und Otto IV. von Braunschwe ig (Leipzig, 1873-1878); O. Abel, Konig Philipp der Hohenstaufen (Berli n, 1852); Regesta imperil. V., edited by J. Picker (Innsbruck, 1881); R. S chwemer, Innocenz III und die deutsche Kirche wahrend des Thronstreites v on 1198-1208 (Strassburg, 1882); and R. Riant, Innocent III, Philippe de S ouabe, et Boniface de Montferrat (Paris, 1875). This text is from the 1911 Britannica.
Some sources list her first name as Mary