Earl of Belesme. The Complete Peerage vol.XI,p.689-696. Robert de Belleme, Earl of Shrewsbury, whose chief strongholds were in t he Welsh Marches, was an exceptionally sadistic man and not popular with t he English people. Although he lost several castles in the process, Hen ry successfully expelled Robert de Belleme with enthusiastic support. Robert inherited Alcenon in Normandy from his father. His brother, Hugh, i nherited the English lands, but when Hugh died without an heir in 1098, Ro bert succeeded to the, becoming Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury. All of h is English honors and estates were forfeited to the Crown when he was exil ed in 1102.
Antenor concluded a peace with the Gauls. He abolished the custom of sacri ficing his enemies' children. d. 143 BCE
b. Abt. 77 BCE; d. Bet. 37 - 34 BCE Cause of Death: Killed by the Gauls in battle
Bassanus Magnus, primarily a figure of legend, married a daughter of the Norwegian King of the Orcades. D. 250 BCE
d. 74 BCE
Died ca. 232 BCE
Died ca. 125 BCE
Died ca. 159 BCE in Battle
Died ca. 300 BCE Following this line using the LDS format leads to Priam of Troy and Hecuba. Since this appears largely as mythological with no support data and since I have already used the format to link to Priam previously, I will not follow it out further along this line of descent. 11/17/99 JCT
b. Abt. 57 BCE; d.11 BCE Same person listed as King Francio of the Sicambri in the book "The Illustrated Bloodline of the Holy Graiil; The Hidden Lineage of Jesus Revealed"
Died ca. 198 BCE
Death: Abt. 95 BCE Merodacus fought the Gauls and resettled their former lands.
Death: Bet. 198 - 195 BCE
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165 - September 28, 1197) was ki ng of Germany as Henry VI 1190-1197, and Holy Roman Emperor 1191-1197. Emperor Henry VI was crowned king of Sicily in Palermo in 1194, entered Ro me in 1196, and was crowned by Pope Celestine III. His accession to the th rone of Sicily united the northern and southern lands of the empire and de eply alarmed other Mediterranean powers.
Source: Fettes, Ian. Genealogical Royalty Database.
Earl of Caithness and Sunderland
See information in Snorre's Saga and the Icelandic Landnamobok (settleme nt book) possibly pure mythical from this point forward. The greatest period of colonization occurred in the latter half of the nin th century and the beginning of the tenth. They began again for a ti me in the early part of the eleventh century. During this period, large pa rts of northern France, England, and Ireland, were occupied and ruled by t he Vikings. Invasions were usually led by men of high rank whose leaders h eld equal power (i.e. no one supreme commander). Invasions of this kind pe netrated Hamburg and Paris, and under the sons of Ragnar Lodbrok, eventual ly reached England. King Horik wanted any Danish Viking raids to be und er his direction. In 845 he sent several hundred vessels up the Elbe to ta ke Hamburg, and at the same time sent Ragnar Lodbrok with a smaller fle et up the Seine to capture Paris. In 865 Viking attacks were launch ed in a more northerly direction and based on East Anglia. This was the st arting point of an attack by a united army led by the three sons of Ragn ar Lodbrok: Ivar the Boneless (a strategist), Ubbi, and Halfdan. This ar my captured York on November 1, 866. Around 860 AD, under the leadersh ip of Bjorn and Hastings, a fleet of sixty-two vessels set out for Brittan y. This time, however, they were only able to sack Algeciras just inside t he Straits of Gibralter. From here they crossed to Nekor in Morocco, and e ight days later sailed north past the Balearic Islands to the southern sho res of France, where they set up camp on the island of La Camargue in t he Rhone delta. Around 851 AD, the chieftain Olaf the White from Norway, r econquered Dublin, restored Norwegian supremacy, and finally chased the Da nes out of Ireland. For the next twenty years Olaf ruled in Dublin, and h is brother Ivar the Boneless, ruled in Limerick. In 870 Olaf the White w as recalled to Norway, and the government of Dublin was taken over by h is brother Ivar. The rest of the century the Norwegians spent in fightin g; partly among themselves, and partly against the Danes under King Halfd an Hvidsaark in northern England.
THE MONGOL INVASION Soon after the German conquest of Livonia, and only a few years befo re the Teutonic Knights moved into Prussia, East Central Europe receiv ed a first warning that another wave of Asiatic conquerors was approachi ng from the East. The huge Eurasian Empire created by Jenghis Khan ear ly in the thirteenth century was supposed to include all peoples of Mong ol origin, and it therefore attacked the Polovtsy who for more than a hund red years had controlled the steppes of Eastern Europe. Although they h ad been a permanent plague for the Kievan State, and although the Russia ns were proud of their fight against them (which is described in the mu ch discussed Tale of the Host of Igor), some Russian princes whom the Polo vtsy asked for help in the critical year of 1223 sided with them against t he Mongols, only to share in a crushing defeat at the Kalka River. Asiat ic problems, and the death of Jenghis Khan four years later, delayed the r evenge of the Mongols who were, however, resolved to take the place of t he destroyed Polovtsy in Eastern Europe and to secure the domination of th at whole region by bringing the neighboring Russian principalities under t heir control also. The new colonial Russia in the Volga Basin was first invaded and conqu ered in 12371238. But instead of advancing in the direction of Novgoro d, which was never taken by the Mongols, the leader of their European expe dition, Jenghis Khans grandson Batu, turned in 1240 against Kiev, which w as destroyed. After also occupying the whole south of Russia, the followi ng year he entered both Poland and Hungary. Even Western Europe was seriou sly alarmed when one Mongolian army defeated the Poles, first near Crac ow and then at Lignica in Silesia, while another gained a great victory ov er the Hungarians at the Sajo River and advanced as far as the Adriatic. B ut again Asiatic developments, including the death of the Grand Khan, ma de the Mongols withdraw. They never returned to Hungary, and after being s topped at Lignica, where Prince Henry the Pious of Wroclaw gave his li fe in defense of Christendom, they henceforth limited themselves to occasi onal raids into eastern Poland, sometimes forcing the Russian prince to pa rticipate in these invasions as well as in those directed against Lithuani a. On the contrary, almost all the Russian lands, with the exception of N ovgorod and the White Russian principalities in the northwest where Lithua nian influence proved stronger, remained for a long period under Mongol ru le. Indirectly they were under the suzerainty of the Grand Khan who resid ed in faraway Karakorum, in Mongolia proper. Directly they were under t he Golden Horde of Kipchak, as the European part of the Mongol Empire w as called. That autonomous unit founded by Batu Khan, with its capit al at Sarai on the lower Volga, included both the peoples of Asiatic orig in in the steppes north of the Black Sea, usually covered by the name of T artars, and the various Russian principalities under the overlordship of t he Khan of Kipchak. That Mongol domination was indeed a major catastrophe in the histo ry of Russia. It was that Asiatic impact that alienated her from Europe an d, much more than the earlier Byzantine influence, made her different fr om and opposed to the West. There were, however, important differenc es in the position of the various parts of Russia. In general, her princip alities were left to their former rulers, to the various lines of the Rur ik dynasty whose members were simply made vassals of the Khan. Only in exc eptional cases where no hereditary line was established, as in Kiev itse lf and in the lowlands of Podolia, Tartar officials were at the head of t he local administration. In such cases only the church remained as a guardian of the old tradit ion, and it was a metropolitan of Kiev who soon after the destruction of t he glorious capital went to the Council of Lyons in 1245, asking for he lp from the Catholic West. Pope Innocent IV was indeed deeply concerned wi th the Mongol danger at the gates of Catholic Europe. He was also fully aw are of the possibilities of religious reunion which any real assistance gr anted to Orthodox Christendom would open in Russia as well as in the Ne ar East where he negotiated simultaneously with the Greeks of Nicaea. B ut absorbed by the conflict with the Western Empire, the papacy was powerl ess against the Mongols, who time and again were even considered possib le allies against Arabs or Turks. The papal missions, sent as far as Karak orum with illusionary hopes of conversion, collected precious informati on about the devastated Russian lands which they had to cross, but on ly in the case of Halich and Volhynia did any prospects of cooperation, bo th religious and political, appear. In this section of the old Kievan State which continued to have clo se ties with Catholic Poland and sometimes Hungary also, Tartar dominati on was opposed from the outset whenever it proved possible to do so, and T artar influence remained negligible. The state of Daniel, a son of Roma n, and his successors must therefore be considered an integral part of t he European community, as in the past, and its role in the history of Ea st Central Europe deserves special attention. But Daniels earlier hop es of uniting Kiev with his patrimony no longer had any chance of succes s. On the contrary, the Kiev region, which during the following centu ry of immediate Tartar control completely lost its traditional significanc e, was separating Daniels realm from the eastern parts of Russia, call ed Great Russia in the Byzantine sources, in contradistinction to Little R ussia, i.e., Halich and Volhynia. Since the petty principalities into which the Chernigov (Severian) reg ion was divided were of limited importance, the new Great Russian State, w hose formation is the main feature of Eastern European history in the thir teenth century, was constituted by the principalities of the colonial Vol ga region, where Vladimir-on-the-Klazma now supplanted Suzdal as the ma in center. Among the descendants of Vsevolod Big Nest, who ruled in that vast reg ion, Yaroslav, whose brother George had been killed when fighting the Mong ols in 1238, occupied after him the leading position and inaugurated a shr ewd policy of appeasing the new masters of Eastern Europe. Twice he undert ook the perilous and exhausting journey to the Grand Khans Asiatic reside nce, only to perish on the return in 1246, as did so many other Russian pr inces of the Mongol period during or after such visits. It now became a ru le that the Khan would decide who would occupy the position of grand prin ce in Russia, and after a few years of trouble that decision was tak en in 1252 in favor of Yaroslavs son, the famous Alexander Nevsky. B ut he no longer had any pretension to claim, as his predecessors did, t he ancient throne of Kiev also. On the contrary, he definitely limited h is Russia to the new body politic around Vladimir. It is true that before ruling there he had been accepted as prin ce by the people of Novgorod, and his very surname recalled his victory ov er the Swedes, gained in 1240 at the Neva River, where he defended the rep ublic against the Scandinavian masters of Finland. Two years later he al so defeated the German Knights of Livonia in another battle on frozen La ke Peipus. But since these early contacts with the Catholic West had be en exclusively hostile, he turned decidedly toward the East, showed no int erest in papal appeals in favor of ecclesiastical union, but on the contra ry tried to strengthen his position by loyally cooperating with his Tart ar overlords. Such cooperation resulted in the privilege of collecting the heavy tax es which the Khan required from all Russian princes. It was convenient f or the Tartars to receive the whole amount through the intermediation of t he Grand Prince, who in turn used that rather unpleasant task for the purp ose of controlling the other princes and uniting the new Russia under h is own authority. After his death in 1263 such a policy was continued by A lexanders less prominent successors, the main problem being which prin ce would receive the supreme power connected with the possession of Vladim ir in addition to his hereditary apanage. In the absence of any recogniz ed order of succession, their rivalry could only lead to continuous Tart ar interference, which was particularly evident in the long-lasting strugg le for supremacy between the princes of Tver and those of Moscow. The first of these two main principalities, which seemed to have a rig ht of seniority, succeeded in controlling Vladimir with few interruptio ns until 1319. But Moscow, not mentioned before 1147, which first appear ed as a separate principality a hundred years later but was not really con stituted as a hereditary apanage of one of the lines of the dynasty befo re the turn of the thirteenth century, rapidly rose to leading power und er a succession of extremely efficient rulers who enlarged their territo ry and gradually supplanted their cousins from Tver as real masters of a ll dependencies of Vladimir. That whole story, which is comparatively well known, no longer has any thing in common with the history of East Central Europe. The acceptan ce of Mongol domination, which was to last more than two hundred years, w as probably unavoidable, but in any case it decided that the new coloni al Russia Eastern Europe in the geographical sense would develop outside t he European community. Connected with an empire whose major part and bas ic nucleus were in Asia, it was at the same time cut off from European inf luence and wide open to Asiatic. It is to the credit of the East Slavic, Great Russian settlers in th at originally Finnish territory that they preserved not only their langua ge and customs, that they not only continued to absorb various alien peopl es, thanks to their cultural superiority, but also remained faithful to th eir religious tradition which in spite of the conflicting trends represent ed by pagan elements survived under extremely difficult conditions. This w as to a large extent the result of an unbroken continuity of ecclesiastic al organization, under the distant but respected authority of Byzantium, a nd particularly of the decision made around 1300 by the metropolitan of Ki ev to transfer his residence to Vladimir, whence it was moved in 1326 to t he promising center of Moscow. But neither that ecclesiastical link, nor the dynastic link with the K ievan past, was sufficient to make the Muscovite State a continuation of t he Kievan State with merely a shift of the center. It was a new politic al creation where the local autocratic tradition was reinforced by the gov ernmental conceptions of the Mongol Empire. That empire was much more desp otic than the Christian Empire of Constantinople had ever been, and at t he same time much more aggressive, with an unlimited program of expansio n. As soon as Muscovite Russia, trained under such an influence, felt stro ng enough to liberate herself from the degrading yoke of that disintegrati ng empire, she took over its role in Eastern Europe, later to include i ts Asiatic part also by means of another process of colonization. But for that very reason Moscow under her czars, as the grand princ es later called themselves like the Tartar khans, became a threat to all f ree peoples of East Central Europe, who soon found themselves placed betwe en German and Russian imperialism. The first to be threatened were those E astern Slavs who had remained in their original settlements, in the old Ru ssia of the Kievan Rusthe Ruthenia of the Latin sourcesincluding also t he Great Russians of Novgorod, all of them soon to be claimed by the rule rs of Moscow in the name of the unity of all the Russias. The question whe ther those peoples, particularly the ancestors of the White Russians and U krainians of today, would be able to save their individuality and ke ep in contact with their western neighbors was an issue of primary importa nce for the whole structure of Europe which the consequences of the Mong ol invasion had already raised in the thirteenth century.
Died 74 CE
Relinquished Crown in 36 CE. Was previously the Arch Druid of Siluria before converting to Christianity BRAN THE BLESSED SOVEREIGN [bran], also known as Bren and Cunobelinus, was the son of Llyr and Penarddun. He lived around 36 CE and was considered "old" in 60 CE. (Wurts, 1942; Morgan 1911) Brân married a sister of Casswallan (who was his mother's brother). Casswallon was a British king in 62 BCE and was made Commander in Chief of all British forces at the time of Caesar's first invasion, 55 BCE. He was forced to pay tribute and died in 48 BCE. (Wurts, 1942; Morgan 1911) Brân resigned his crown to his son Caradoc and became Arch-Druid of the college of Siluria where he remainined some years until called upon to be a hostage for his son. During his seven years in Rome he became the first royal convert for Christianity and was baptized by the Apostle Paul, as was his son Caradoc and the latter's two sons Cyllinus and Cynon. Henceforth he was known as the "Blessed Sovereign". He was the first to bring the faith of Christ to the Cymry. He is also attributed as introducing the use of vellum into Britain. (Wurts, 1942) Regarding the death of Brân there is this from the 'The Mabinogion': And Evnissyen said, "Why does my nephew, the son of my sister, not come to me ?" "Let him go gladly," said Brân, and Gwern went gladly. Evnissyen rose and took Gwern by the feet, and at once, before a man in the house could lay a hand on him, he thrust the boy headfirst into the fire. When Branwen saw her son burning in the fire, she made as if to leap after him from where she was sitting between her two brothers, but Brân seized her with one hand and his shield with the other. Everyone in the house sprang u p, and there arose the greatest commotion ever caused by a host in one hou se as everyone reached for his arms. As each men went after his weapons, Brân protected Branwen between his shield and his shoulder. Seven escaped, though Brân had been wounded in the foot by a poisoned spear. Brân commanded them to cut off his head. "Take my head," he said, "and carry it to the White Hill in London and bury it there with the face turned toward France." They landed at Aber Alaw in Tal Ebolyon and sat down and rested, but Branwen looked at the Island of the Mighty, and said: "Alas, woe that I was ever born, for two good islands have been destroyed on my ac count." And with that her heart broke. They made a four-sided grave and buried her on the bank of the Alaw....so ends this Branch of the Mabinogi, a bout the blow struck at Branwen, and about the Assembly of Brân, wherein t he hosts of 154 districts went to Ireland to avenge that blow. (Mabinogion ) Cunobelinus [Roman name] died c. 42 CE, was the ruler of a large area of s outheastern Britain from about CE 1- to 42. He is Cymbeline in Shakespeare 's play of the same name, though the plot bears no relationship to the events of his career. He succeeded his father as chief of the Catuvellauni, a tribe centered north of what is now London. Either shortly before or after his accession, he conquered the territory of the Trinovantes, in modern Essex. He made Camulodunum (Colchester) his capital and the seat of his mint. His power and influence were so widely felt in Britain that the Roman biographer Suetonius called him "Britannorum rex." In about 40 CE Cunobelius banished his son Adminius, who fled to Rome and persuaded the emperor Caligula (Gaius Caesar) to invade Britain. The expedition was assembled, but it never left the continent. After Cunobelinus' death, his two other sons, Caratacus and Togodumnus, displayed hostility toward Rome and gave Claudius an excuse to impose Roman rule on the island. (M organ 1911) Quote attributed to Bren: "Let him who is a chief be a bridge." (Wurts, 19 42) Welsh Mythology regard Brân: In the tales, Brân's sister Branwen the Fair Bosomed was married to King M atholwch of Ireland. Due to various affronts of Branwen, not to mention t he later death of Branwen's son, the Welsh crossed the Irish Sea to attack Ireland. Those on the east coast of Erin saw an eerie vision of a mount ain and a forest on the water. Branwen informed King Matholwch that the mo untain was Brân walking across the sea, and that the forest was a multitude of masts from Welsh naval ships coming to bring her just relief. The Welsh landed and fought furiously against the Irish. The warriors of I reland seemed to have the upper hand. This was because they had the cauldron of Brân, which was given to Matholwch as a wedding present. The Irish needed only to plunge their slain warriors into the cauldron, and they wou ld be brought back to life. The Welsh discovered this and successfully destroyed the cauldron. The warriors of Wales proceeded then to defeat the Irish. But there were only seven Welshmen left unhurt, including Pryderi, Manawyddan, Taliesin the Bard, and four others. The high drama of the situation was that Brân himself was seriously wounded, pierced in the foot with a poison arrow. He was in agony. Brân asked his seven fellow warriors to cut off his head, carry it to London, and bury it there with his face towards France. This was so that Brân in his death could stand watch against any foe that tried to invade Britain. So Brân's head was removed, and at this point proceeded to become famous in Celtic mythology. The seven bearers of Brân's head began the journey to London, but stopped for a feast and to be serenaded by the three birds of Rhiannon. These birds sang so sweetly that the men slid into a state of oblivion and lost all track of time. For seven years the men drank and ate, and conversed in an agreeable and pleasant fashion with the head of Brân, which behaved like it was very much alive. Then they journeyed further, only to stop and have an eighty-year feast, again losing all sense of time, and talking amiably with the animated head of Brân. But then one of the seven head bearers realized that 87 years had passed s ince their journey had begun. And upon seeing Cornwall, they all resolved that their mission must be completed. So Brân's head was buried in Lond on facing France, only to be disinterred by King Arthur in a later myth. Brân is often called in legend "the Blessed," and he is considered alternately to have had a Noble, Venerable, and Wonderful Head!
CARADOC ap BRAN also known as Caractacus, Caratacus, Caradawg "Strong Arm" [ka'ra.daug]. He was the son of Bran. Caradoc was born at Trevan, Llani lid (Glamorganshire). His main residence was at Abergwaredigion ("the Meet ing-Place of the Saved/Released Ones"). (Wurts, 1942; Morgan 1911) Children: Cyllinus (Linus), Eurgan (Claudia), Cynon, Cawrdav (Wurts, 194 2; Morgan 1911) Tacitus, describing the stand made by the Silurians under Caradoc ap Bran at Caer Caradoc, near Knighton, county Radnor, states: "The intrepid countenances of their whole army and the spirit which animated them, struck the Roman commander, Ostorius, with astonishment...The chieftains of the various tribes were seen busy in every direction. They raced along the ranks of their army. They exhorted their warriors, they roused the timid, they inured the valient, and by promises inflamed the ardour of all...Caractacus was seen alternately in every part of his army. He galloped along the lines, exclaiming aloud: 'This day, my comrades, this very day, decides the fate of all Britain!' " Caradoc was expecting Gwyn to arrive wi th reinforcements, but they missed each other and while General Gwyn was conquering Caerwent, Caradoc was captured by Argwedd Voeddig (Queen Cartism andua of the north of England - a.k.a Brynack of the Britons and Brigante ), the wife of Gwyn. In chains, Caradoc was handed a captive to the Roman General Ostorius Scapula. Caradoc and his son Cyllin (Linus), and his daughter Eurgain (Claudia of Caesar's household), were afterwards placed in Rome in the care of Pomponia Graecenia, wife of the Roman Regent, General Plautus (commander in the invasion of 43 CE). Pomponia was later charged at Rome with having "embraced a foreign superstition". (Wurts, 194 2; Morgan 1911) "The men hastened out, they galloped together; short-lived were they, drunk over the clarified mead, the retinue of Mynyddawg, famous in stress of battle; their lives were payment for their feast of mead. Caradawg and Madawg, Pyll and Ieuan, Gwgawn and Gwiawn, Gwynn and Cynfan, Peredur of the steel weapons, Gwawrddur and Aeddan, charging forward in batt le among broken shields; and though they were slain they slew, none returned to his lands." Welsh (about 600) Caratacus' kingdom covered the Atrebates of Hampshire and probably the Dobunni of Gloucestershire. At the time of the Roman invasion of Britain during the reign of Claudius, he led the native resistance against Aulus Plautis (43-47 CE) and after being defeated, withdrew into south Wales. He was finally defeated by Ostorius Scapula in 50 CE, somewhere in the Welsh marshes, in the territory of the Ordovices. He himself fled to the Brigantes, whose queen, Cartimandua, delivered him to the Romans. He and his family were featured in a victory parade of Claudius, who granted them pardon and life. (Wurts, 1942; Morgan 1911) A quote attributed to Caradoc is: "Oppression persisted in brings on death ". (Wurts, 1942) "Bloodline of the Holy Grail" lists his name as Arviragus who died 74 CE
Name is noted as Marius in some journals. Most specifically in the book "Bloodline of the Holy Grail". However, I am doubtful that Marius ever existed and the Cyllin is the rightful father of Coel I. Cyllin, King of Siluria was sainted by the early Church of Britain. He, first of the Cymry, gave infants names, which previously were not given except to adults, and then from something characteristic in the bodies, jobs, minds, or manners. Linus and his sister Claudia (Eurgan) visited St. Paul in his cell (2 Timot hy iv. 21). For some years after the death of St. Peter in 66 CE and St. P aul in 68 CE, both Linus and Clement led their respective schools of Christians at Rome. Eventually Linus departed and joined his royal kindred in Glamorgan. (Wurts, 1942; Morgan 1911) There is considerable confusion at this jucture as the Sangrael lineages list this person as Marius, son of King Arviragus of Siluria and his wife the daughter of Bran the Blessed, whereas most genealogies, put the female as the daughter of Bran and not his daughter in law.