Scota was the daughter of the Pharaoh. Her name is where the Scottish deri ve their name. She was believed killed in Ireland in a battle with Tuat ha de Danaan (Gaelic for People of the Goddess Danu), whereafter here surv ing sons Heber (Eber) and Hermon (Éremón) took control of Ireland from t he Tuatha de Danaan. Additional information The Scots claim descent from an Egyptian princess named Scota. Accordi ng to the historian Eusebius she married a Scythian who was a prince of t he Gaels. 'Scota' is an archetypal name bestowed upon women of her line. O riginally it was probably 'Sacathach' or 'Scythian', a title given to t he Egyptian princess as a gesture of acceptance by her husband's peopl e. A descendant carrying this archetypal name married one of the Sons of M il (descendants of Mil) who invaded the Tuatha de Danaan, the Faery fo lk of Ireland. She died during the battle that preceded Tailtinn. After h er husband and his brother defeated the Danaan at Tailtinn, the former rul ed the northern half of Ireland. The date of the invasion is called into question when historian Lorraine E vans connects Scota to an Egyptian vessel found off the coast of northe rn Britain that dates from 1350 B.C. Evans traces Scota in Spain, which se ems appropriate, but the Sons of Mil did not invade Ireland until five hun dred years later. The Gaels of Ireland, who sailed from the north of Spain, are prov en to be genetically related to the Basque people of that region, which su ggests that integration took place there. The Basques claim to be descend ed from Paleolithic inhabitants of Europe. While they speak an ancient Eus karic language (closely related to those of the Faan) they have many Cauca sian characteristics. Black African genes also have been found in Gaels. W hile they do not prove the Scota legend, they certainly support it.
Alexander I (1107-24) When King Edgar died, he bequeathed Scotland north of the Forth to his bro ther Alexander, but gave the sovereignty of Lothian and Cumbria to their y ounger brother David. Born around 1077, Alexander was the fifth son of Mal colm III and St Margaret. Named after Pope Alexander II, he was describ ed by one chronicler as 'a lettered and godly man', but he was also kno wn as 'Alexander the Fierce' after dealing ruthlessly with an uprisi ng in Moray. In 1114 he served as leader of a contingent in Henry I of Eng land's campaign against the Welsh (he was technically a vassal of the Engl ish king). Alexander married Henry's illegitimate daughter Sybilla (Hen ry had married Alexander's sister Maud). Sybilla died suddenly in 1122, le aving no children, and Alexander died at Stirling on 23 April 1124.
Constantine II (900-43) Constantine II was the son of Aed. He ruled for over 40 years, repelling N orse raids and launching a series of invasions of Northumbria. In an attem pt to establish a more stable relationship with the Norsemen of Ireland, C onstantine married his daughter to Olaf III Guthfrithsson in the 930s. Th is dynastic marriage may have also had the intention of checking the advan ce of Wessex in northern England - if so, it failed. Constantine was final ly defeated in 937 by the Anglo-Saxon king Athelstan at the Battle of Brun anburh, where his eldest son was killed. He abdicated in 943, entered a Cu ldee monastery in St Andrews, Fife and died in 952. Keeping at bay the Danish invaders and securing his hold on Alba, Constant ine II even managed to break through passed the Clyde border and into sout hern Scotland bring him, not only face to face with the English Anglo-Saxo ns for the first time, but also into conflict. This then started the Engli sh / Scottish rivalry. Not only was he successfully defending against the ir raiding, but also he managed to pull off a lot of his own. This wari ng was to last for centuries. When his brother Donald was passed the throne of Strathclyde, after the de ath of the last British King their in 908, the House of Alpin had at la st secured it's entire grip on Scotland. In 904 he defeated the Norse in the northern regions and they finally with drew their threat. In 912 he turned his attention to the Scandinavia ns in the south, but in 915 he himself withdrew and retreated north. In 9 27 the fighting was ceased as the English had managed to unite the othe rs who were also defending against the Dane's, and that combined army dro ve them out. Constantine II had now recognized a border between Scotland a nd England. Peace reigned between the two kingdoms until King Athelstan of England inv aded Scotland and took Constantine's son hostage. Three years passed and C onstantine struck back with a vengeance, but it was not enough, and in 9 37 the Scots were defeated and slaughtered in Brunanburgh. Constantine him self managed to survive. Defeated and bruised he stopped his fighting and spent more time defendi ng against the, once again, angry Dane's who were driving further nort h. In 943 having watched his armies defeated and his kingdom getting small er, he abdicated is throne and spent his remaining years in a monastery. S ome say it was not through choice.
Constantine III (995-97) Having killed Kenneth II, Constantine, son of Culen, made himself king. H is reign was brief, and he was killed in 997, probably by Kenneth III.
David I (1124-53) Born about 1080, David was the sixth and youngest son of Malcolm III a nd St Margaret. He spent his youth at the Court of his brother-in-law Hen ry I of England and in about 1113-14 married Matilda, daughter of Waltheo f, Earl of Huntingdon and widow of Simon de Senlis. As a result of the mar riage, he held the Earldom of Northampton and the Honour of Huntingdon, wi th a legitimate claim to a large part of England. David succeeded his brother Alexander as King of Scots in 1124. He w as by then in his mid-40s, and was famous for his piety. Indeed, he was la ter criticized as being 'a sair sanct for the croun' [too pious to ma ke a successful monarch] but in fact his generosity to the Church and h is foundation of many abbeys including Holyrood, Melrose and Dryburgh, a nd sees such as Caithness, Dunblane and Aberdeen, had sound practical reas ons too. The monks improved the country's economy by engaging in sheep far ming, coal working and salt making. David issued the first Scottish coinage; he also reorganized civil institu tions and founded royal burghs (such as Stirling, Perth and Dunfermline ). David extended feudal tenure by granting land to Anglo-Normans in retu rn for feudal services, and appointed them as royal officials such as sher iffs and justiciars. David encouraged Anglo-French immigration. In the 1130s, David met with resistance in Moray and the north; hitherto r uled by an independent dynasty, Moray was annexed and reorganized by David . When Henry I of England died in 1135, and the succession of his daughter M atilda was disputed by King Stephen, David I invaded England, ostensib ly on behalf of his niece Matilda. However, he was also taking advanta ge of the confusion resulting from the civil war in England, and using t he opportunity to try to extend his kingdom southwards. Although he was de feated at the Battle of the Standard, near Northallerton in Yorkshi re on 22 August 1138, he continued his campaign until, in 1139, the Trea ty of Durham confirmed his possession of Northumberland. In 1149 he persua ded Henry II, Matilda's son, to give him an undertaking that Scotland cou ld retain Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmoreland. David's surviving son Earl Henry (named after Henry I of England) di ed in 1152. David died at Carlisle, Cumberland on 24 May 1153, aged abo ut 73. He was buried in Dunfermline, where he had extended the church in to an abbey in commemoration of his parents. Ailred of Rievaulx wrote 'w ho can estimate the good done to the world by this gentle, just, chaste a nd humble ruler, loved for his gentleness, feared for his justice...'
Donald III (1093-94, 1094-97) Donald 'Bane' (Fair) was the younger brother of Malcolm III. He succeed ed him in 1093, at the age of 60, after driving out Malcolm's sons and cla iming the crown on the basis of tanistry. Donald was deposed by his neph ew Duncan II in 1094, with the assistance of William II (Rufus) of Englan d; Donald regained the throne soon afterwards when Duncan was killed in No vember that year. Donald then seems to have shared his rule with his neph ew Edmund (Donald in Scotia, Edmund in Lothian and Strathclyde). In 109 7, Malcolm III's son Edgar invaded Scotland with help from William II of E ngland, and Donald was defeated and deposed once more. Accounts of his fa te differ, but according to one version he was blinded and kept prisoner u ntil his death at Rescobie, Angus in about 1100. (Edmund was pardoned a nd became a monk.) Additional Information, Donald Bane and Macbeth Macbeth was born circa 1005 and died (killed in battle) on August 15,105 7. Macbeth was actually a competent monarch who suffered badly at the han ds of William Shakespeare. Although he had a sound claim to the thro ne of Scotland he had to deal with many who would take his place, includi ng Crinan and Duncan's sons Malcolm and Donald Bane. Donald Bane, also spelled Donaldbane, or Donalbane, Bane also spelled B an or Bain was born circa 1033 and died sometime shortly after 1097. He w as king of Scotland from November 1093 to May 1094 and from November 10 94 to October 1097. Upon the death of his brother Malcolm III Cænmore in 1093 there was a fier ce contest for the crown. Donald Bane besieged Edinburgh Castle, took i t, and, with the support of the Celtic Scots and the custom of tanistry (t he Celtic system of electing kings or chiefs; whereby the successor of a k ing was elected during his lifetime from the eldest and worthiest of his k in, often a brother or cousin in preference to a descendant), he was ki ng nominally for at least six months. He was expelled by Duncan II, s on of Malcolm, assisted by English and Normans and some Saxons. Duncans r eign was equally short, for Donald Bane had his nephew slain and again rei gned for three years. These years saw the last attempt of the Celts to maintain a king of the ir race and a kingdom governed according to their customs. Edgar the Aethe ling, who had newly befriended William Rufus, the Norman King of Englan d, led an army into Scotland, dispossessed Donald Bane, and advanced his n ephew Edgar, son of Malcolm III, as sole king of the Scots. It is fitting that Donald Bane was interred, as was Macbeth, at the Is le of Iona, with the ancient Celtic Kings of Dalriada, Alba and Scotland a round him. He was the last Scottish King to be buried there.
Dubh or Duff (962-66) Dubh, whose Gaelic name means 'black', was the son of Malcolm I. He was tw ice challenged for the throne by Culen, and on the second occasion was kil led in Moray in 966. Additional information Dubh or Duf who was King of Alba 962 - 966, and was killed by his third co usin Culen who then ruled as King of Alba 966 - 971. (Culen in turn was k illed by Ryderch, King of Strathclyde, whose daughter he had kidnapped .) Dubh's great granddaughter was Gruoch who married Macbeth who was Ki ng of Scotland 1040 - 1057. Gruoch was Shakespeare's "Lady Macbeth".
Duncan I (1034-40) Duncan was the son of Malcolm II's eldest daughter Bethoc and her husba nd Crinan, Lay Abbot of Dunkeld. He was about 33 when he succeeded his gra ndfather. Married to a cousin of Siward, Earl of Northumberland he may ha ve favoured southern ways and this is perhaps why he became unpopular wi th his subjects. In 1039 he did march south to besiege Durham but he was b eaten off, with heavy losses. Duncan attempted to impose his overlordsh ip over Moray (an independent dynasty) by military force. He was then twi ce defeated by the Earl of Orkney's son, Thorfinn, before being kill ed in battle by Macbeth, one of his commanders, near Elgin, Morayshi re on 14 August 1040. Additional information Duncan I the Gracious, King of Scotland, added Strathclyde to the kingdo m, and is thus considered to be the first king of a united Scotland. H is reign, however, was a period of disatrous wars and internal strife; a nd ended in 1040 when he was defeated and killed in battle by Macbeth, Mor mær of Ross and Moray who then became king. Despite Shakespeare's depiction to the contrary, Macbeth was an honest mon arch who was generous to the church; and as a grandson of Malcolm (II), h ad as legitimate a claim to the throne as did Duncan. As well, Macbeth 's wife Gruoch was a greatX2 granddaughter of Malcolm (I). Duncan's wif e, on the other hand, was a relative of Siward, the Viking Earl of Northum bria; which helps explain why Siward assisted Duncan's sons in defeating M acbeth. In all fairness, it should be borne in mind that Shakespeare bas ed his work on Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles and that he did not intend M acbeth to be an historical documentary, but rather an entertaining play.
Duncan II (1094) The eldest son of Malcolm III by his first wife Ingibjorg, Duncan spe nt 15 years as a hostage in England before being released by Willi am II in 1087. Aged about 34 when he deposed his uncle, Donald III, with E nglish help, Duncan was in effect an English vassal and, as such, he was u npopular in Scotland. Duncan was killed by the Mormaer of the Mear ns on 12 November 1094, presumably at Donald's instigation. His reign h ad lasted for about six months. It was he who granted the earliest survivi ng Scottish charter.
Edgar (1097-1107) Born around 1074, Edgar was the fourth son of Malcolm III and St Margare t. He found refuge in England on his father's death and, about 1095, Willi am II of England recognized him as the rightful King of Scots. In retur n, Edgar agreed to hold Scotland as William's vassal. The following yea r, an English army helped Edgar to seize the throne from his uncle, Dona ld III. In 1100, his sister Matilda (Maud) married Henry I of England a nd so he became the English king's brother-in-law. Edgar's submissive atti tude to England and his presentation of the Western Isles to the king of N orway led to his (insulting) nickname 'the Peaceable. He himself did not m arry, and died in Edinburgh Castle on 8 January 1107 aged about 33.
James IV of Scotland Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_IV_of_Scotland James IV (March 17, 1473 - September 9, 1513) was king of Scotland from 14 88 to 1513. He was the son of King James III of Scotland and Margaret of Denmark. Wh en his father was murdered on June 11, 1488, the fifteen-year-old James to ok the throne and soon proved an effective ruler. Having fought off the ag gression of King Henry VII of England, he recognized that he could not ho pe to gain the upper hand and so attempted to maintain peace with his neig hbor by marrying Henry's daughter, Margaret Tudor, on August 8, 1503, at H olyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. The couple's first three children all died in in fancy. When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a di fficult position. The new king of England, Henry VIII, attempted to inva de France in 1513, and James reacted by declaring war on England. Hopi ng to take advantage of Henry's absence, he led an invading army southwar d, only to be killed, with many of his nobles, at the disastrous Batt le of Flodden Field on September 9. A body thought to be his was recover ed from the battlefield and taken to London for burial. Rumors persisted that he had survived and had gone into exile, but there h as never been any evidence to support them. James also had seven illegimate children by four different mistresses: T wo died in infancy, and a third, Alexander Stuart, died at the Battle of F lodden THE BATTLE OF FLODDEN Hoping to take advantage of his brother-in-law's absence, James proceeded to the border with a huge army of Scots. The Earl of Surrey was ordered north to meet him by the English Regent, Henry VIII's first wife, Katherine of Aragon. The two armies faced each other at Flodden Edge in the Cheviot Hills, on 9th September, 1513. The Scots army occupied a strong position on the ridge of a hill. The battle commenced with an exchange of cannon fire and James, a courageous soldier but a poor general, was no longer able to control his abiding anger and impatience. Throwing caution to the wind, he abandoned his strategic position and lead his army in full charge down the hill to clash with the English. In a suicidal charge, the Scots army rode to attack the English up hill. They were attacked on their flank by Lord Dacre. The two armies clashed in a slaughterous carnage in which the English steadily gained the advantage. As dusk began to fall, the flower of Scotland's chivalry lay dead on the field. James IV himself fought valorously in the thick of the battle, with a courage even his opponents could but admire. He finally fell, his body pierced by many arrows and his neck severed by a bill. He had inspired such loyalty in the Scots that thousands of them had followed him, even to certain death. The following morning, James' mutilated body was identified and removed from the mound of bloodied corpses that lay in heaps upon the battlefield. After embalming it was sent to London. In poor taste, Katherine of Aragon proudly sent the blood stained coat of her brother-in-law to Henry VIII in France as a victory token along with her congratulations.
King James was the last adult male king of Scotland for nearly fifty year s. He left his country deeply divided between those wishing to follow Eng land's example and break from the Catholic Church, and those wishing to re main. Marie of Lorraine-Guise, was a beautiful young widow when she married Jam es V, but the marriage was never particularity happy. Her new husband h ad numerous mistresses and she was homesick for France and her son she h ad to leave behind. Compared to her native land, life in Scotland was rat her crude and barbaric. She attempted to introduce the amenities of Fren ch life into Scotland. She purchased pear and plum trees, wild boars f or hunting, French doctors and apothecaries Additional information, James V of Scotland Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_V_of_Scotland James V (April, 1512 - December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (Septemb er 9, 1513- December 14,1542). The son of King James IV of Scotland, he was born in April 10, 11 or 15, 1 512, at Linlithgow Palace in Fife, and was still an infant when his fath er was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field on September 9, 1513. Duri ng his childhood, the country was ruled as regent, first by his mother, Ma rgaret Tudor (sister of King Henry VIII of England), until she remarri ed in the following year, and thereafter by the Duke of Albany, who was hi mself next in line for the throne after James and his younger brother, t he posthumously-born Alexander. However, when war broke out again betwe en England and France, the Earl of Angus, the young king's stepfather, dro ve out Albany and kept James confined at Edinburgh Castle. Margaret, having divorced Angu s, rescued James, and in 1528 he assumed the reins of government. His first action as king was to remove Angus from the scene, and he then s ubdued the Border rebels and the chiefs of the Western Isles. He made pea ce with France, and on January 1, 1537, he married Madeleine, daught er of King Francis I of France. Following her death a few months late r, he proceeded to marry Mary of Guise, widow of Louis de Longueville. Alt hough Mary already had two children from her first marriage, both her so ns by James died in infancy. The death of his mother in 1541 removed any incentive for keeping peace wi th England, but James was defeated at the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542. T he setback affected his health, and he was on his deathbed when his only h eir, a girl, was born in December of the same year. He died on December 1 4, 1542, and was succeeded by his infant daughter, Mary I of Scotlan d. He was buried at Holyrood Abbey.
Kenneth II (971-95) Kenneth was the brother of Dubh. In 973 he acknowledged King Edgar of Engl and as his lord in return for recognition that the Scots now held Lothia n, which they had seized from the Angles. In about 994, however, he bro ke his promise to keep the peace and invaded England. He was defeated, a nd lost Lothian again. He killed Culen's brother in 977 and was himself ki lled in 995 in a blood feud at Fettercairn, Kincardineshire. In an attempt to regain the Strathclyde region, and to avenge the defe at of Culen, Kenneth II too was defeated and returned to his own lands wi th some thinking to do. 20 years went by before Kenneth II even thought about trying the warfare a ngle of being king again, and he ruled his kingdom with diplomacy and cal m. But this isn't the reason why his reign was somewhat longer than mo st - around 873 he murdered Culen's brother Olaf before he even had a chan ce to try it first. So the peace wasn't what it seemed, and eventually in 994 Kenneth was temp ted to hit out at the south again. Unfortunately for him this crusade w as a failure and he too had to cut his vacation short in order to come ho me and clear up a revolt which was underway in his own land while he was a way. Kenneth II's death was somewhat different from the others and more grueso me than usual too. When trying to keep the peace in one of his region s, he slew the son of Finella the wife of that regions controller. Finell a, bittered and saddened by her loss, set a trap for him. She built a ro om within a tower and lined it with beautiful tapestries, but behind the t apestries she had hidden loaded crossbows which all pointed to a statue pl aced in the center of the room. In the hand of the statue was a golden app le, and it was set up so that when the apple was picked - the bows would u nleash their darts. One night whilst entertaining her king at a feast, s he lead him to this room and offered the apple as a symbol of their lasti ng friendship. The unsuspecting King took the apple and was instantly kill ed in a hail of arrows.
Kenneth III (997-1005) Kenneth was the son of Dubh. According to one account, he tried to ensu re that his own son Giric would succeed him by making him joint king. Howe ver, Kenneth was killed in battle in March 1005 at Monzievaird, Perthshi re by his kinsman Malcolm, who seized the throne. (Malcolm may have subseq uently arranged the murder of Kenneth III's grandson, to enable a clear su ccession for his own grandson, Duncan I.) Kenneth III was no different from any of the others. It is most likely th at he did indeed kill Constantine III to claim the throne - but as they s ay 'what goes around, comes around' and he himself fell prey to assassinat ion. He lost at Lothian and England was now governing the land south of the Cly de and probably the assassination of Kenneth III was a good ting for Scotl and, as now only the Highlands was obeying (occasionally) the royal comman d. Finally Kenneth III was killed at Monzievaird, near the river Fearn a nd his son Giric was taken with him.
Kenneth I (843-58) Kenneth, son of Alpin, King of Scotia succeeded his father in 843. He defe ated the Picts about 843, uniting them with the Scots in the new kingd om of Alba, which comprised a large part of present day Scotland. Sourc es for the period disagree about the exact date of his victory, but Kenne th features as a notable warrior who reputedly invaded Northumbria six tim es and fought off attacks by the Britons of Strathclyde as well as by t he Norsemen. Using dynastic marriage to solve the problem, Kenneth marri ed his daughter to Rhun, the Strathclyde king. Because of the Norse thre at to Iona, the burial place of St Columba (an Irish Scot who brought Chri stianity to Alba), he removed the saint's relics to a new church whi ch he founded in Pictland at Dunkeld, Perthshire. However, Iona continu ed to be the burial place of Scottish kings even after St Columba's reli cs were moved, until the eleventh century. Kenneth died in 858 at Fortevio t, near Perth, probably of a tumour. End of the Picts The sources for facts of how Kenneth Mac Alpin, the avenging son of the sl ain Alpin, became King of Picts and Scots are few and suspect. Two such so urces, The Prophecy of St. Berchan, and De Instructione Principus note th at in 841 AD Mac Alpin attacked the remnants of the Pictish army and defea ted them (he is lauded as "the raven feeder"). Mac Alpin then invites the Pictish king Drust IX and the remaining Picti sh nobles to Scone to perhaps settle the issue of Dalriada's freedom or Ma cAlpin's claim to the Dalriadic crown. Faced with a recently victorious Ma cAlpin in the south, and a devastated army in the north, Drust, as we ll as all claimants to the Pictish throne from the seven royal houses atte nd this meeting at Scone. Legend has it that the Scots came secretly arm ed to Scone, where Drust and the Pictish nobles were killed. It is Giraldus Cambresis in De Instructione Principus who recounts how a g reat banquet was held at Scone, and the Pictish King and his nobles were p lied with drinks and became quite drunk. Once the Picts were drunk, the Sc ots allegedly pulled bolts from the benches, trapping the Picts in conceal ed earthen hollows under the benches; additionally, the traps were set wi th sharp blades, such that the falling Picts impaled themselves (the The P rophecy of St. Berchan tells that "...[Mac Alpin] plunged them in the pitt ed earth, sown with deadly blades...") . Trapped and unable to defend them selves, the surviving Picts were then murdered from above and their bodie s, clothes and ornaments "plundered." Although their king and royal houses had been murdered, and their armies w iped out in the north by the Vikings and decimated in the south by the Sco ts, the Picts nonetheless resist Scottish domination and as late as the 12 th year of MacAlpin's reign the The Chronicle of Huntington tells us th at Mac Alpin "fought successfully against the Picts seven times in one da y" (perhaps wiping out the last remnants of an independent Pictish armed f orce). Pictish resistance of a sort resurfaces after the end of the short rei gn by MacAlpin's second son, Aedh, when an attempt is tried to revive t he Pictish matrilineal form of succession in the form of bringing to the t hrone Eochaidh Mac Run, son of Kenneth's daughter by a King of the Briton s, which was in turn a joint ruler with a Pict named Giric, son of Dunga l. They were expelled within ten years and Donald, who was the grands on of Kenneth via Kenneth's eldest son, assumed the throne. The Scottish kings' dominion was essentially limited to Fortrenn, the Mear ns and Dalriada, as the rest of the Pictish lands were under the yoke of t he Vikings. Nonetheless, within a few generations, the Pictish langua ge is forgotten, the Pictish Church taken over by the Scottish Columban Ch urch and most vestiges of Pictish culture erased. Furthermore, the seat of Kings is moved to Scone, sacred heart of the Pict ish land and the sons of Mac Alpin accept the crown over the land of Pic ts and Scots seated on a slab of stone which Scottish myth tells us was ca rried by the Celtic tribes since their origins in Spain, brought to Ta ra in Ireland, built into the wall of Dunstaffnage Castle and then broug ht to Scone. The Scots move north, ally themselves with the Vikings; in the south th ey lose and then defeat the Angles and with their borders relatively saf e, forever suffocate Pictish culture. Burke calls him Kenneth II. Kings of Picts & Alba. King of Galloway. See Europäisch Stammtafeln Bund II tafel 67. _____________________________________________________________________ KINGS OF THE PICTS The journeys of Columba brought him to the fortress of Bridei son of Maelc hon, king of the Picts, 'near Inverness'. He ruled over the 'Northern Pict s' as several annals from that time refer to the kingdom of the Picts as b eing divided by the range of the Mounth into northern and southern kingdom s. Bridei is known to have died c.585. 617-633 Edwin King of Northumbria [Oswald, Eanfrith, Oswiu exiled in Pictl and] 634-641 Oswald returned from exile, reigned as King of Northumbria 641-670 Oswiu reigned in Bernicia & from 655 over Northumbria 653-657 Talorgan son of Eanfrith (N'umbria) king of Picts 670-685 Ecgfrith king of N'umbria [672 Picts deposed Drest from kingship] [672 Pictish army slaughtered by Ecgfrith] 672-693 Bridei son of Bili king of Picts [Adomnan became 9th abbot of Io na in 679] [681 Siege of Dunnottar; 682 Bridei laid waste the Orkneys] [683 Siege of Dunadd and Dundurn] [685 Battle of Dunnichen Moss, called 'Nechtansmere'; Bridei/Pictish ar my killed Ecgfrith] [Adomnan wrote his Law of Innocents and made visits to Pictish king in 69 7, d.704] 697 Tarachin, king of Picts expelled from his kingdom 706-724 Nechtan son of Derile king of Picts [711 Picts slaughtered by N'umbrians on 'plain of Manaw'. Nechtan reque st of Northumbrian architectural expertise in building a church 'in the ma nner of Rome' , dedicated to Saint Peter, possibly at Restenneth] [717 Nechtan request Columban 'familia' return to Iona, leaving Pictish ki ngship in control of the Pictish Church] 724 - 734 Nechtan retired to monastic life; Drust ruled 727 Oengus defeated Drust in three battles 728 Oengus defeated Alpin; Nechtan came out of retirement, defeated Alpin 729 Oengus defeated Nechtan who again retired, d. 734 729-761 Oengus I, son of Fergus, king of Picts [735 death of historian Bed e] Oengus as overlord in Dál Riata, d.761 739 Oengus had drowned Talorgan son of Drust 750-752 Teudubr son of Bili, king of Strathclyde, overlord of Picts 752 Battle of Asreth in Circenn (Mearns) between Picts; Bridei son of Mael chon d. 782 Dubh Talorc, king of the Picts on 'this side of the Mounth' died 789 Battle among Picts where Conall, son of Tadc escaped; Constantine t he victor 802-806 Devastation of Iona by Vikings 811-820 Constantine, son of Fergus, king of Picts and of Dál Riata; found ed Dunkeld [he is thought to be king commemorated on Dupplin Cross] 820-834 Oengus II, son of Fergus, king of Picts and of Dál Riata; found ed Saint Andrews 839 major victory by Vikings over Picts; death of Eoganan son of Oeng us - used by macAlpin as opportunity in takeover c.840 Kenneth macAlpin king of Dál Riata c.847 Kenneth macAlpin king of Scots and Picts - called King of Alba
Malcolm III (1058-93) Malcolm Canmore ('great head' or 'chief') was the eldest son of Dunc an I. After his father's death, he found refuge in England with his unc le Siward of Northumbria, where he stayed for more than 14 years. His fir st wife was Ingibjorg, widow of Earl Thorfinn of Orkney. She died, a nd in about 1070 he married Margaret, great-niece of King Edward the Confe ssor of England. She had sought refuge in Scotland with her brother, Edg ar the Atheling (Anglo-Saxon heir to the English throne), when William I e xcluded him from the English succession. Margaret had a strong influence o ver her husband, who revered her piety and secretly had jewel-encrusted bi ndings made for her religious books, which he himself was unable to rea d, never having learned to do so. He also substituted Saxon for Gael ic as the court language. According to Margaret's biographer, she correspo nded with Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, brought Benedictine mon ks to Dunfermline and did away with local usages in the Scottish Church. M argaret also began building what was later to be known as St Margaret's Ch apel, situated on the highest part of Edinburgh Castle. Malcolm was determined to extend his kingdom southwards and take advanta ge of the upheaval caused by the Norman Conquest. Making the excuse th at he was supporting the claim to the English throne of his brother-in-l aw Edgar Atheling, Malcolm invaded England five times (he was a formidab le warrior-king, having killed his two predecessor kings). Three times def eated, Malcolm was forced under the treaty of Abernethy in 1072 to beco me 'the man' of the English king and give up his son Duncan as a hostag e. Malcolm and his eldest son were finally killed in battle at Alnwick, No rthumberland on 13 November 1093, aged about 62. His wife died when they b rought her the news at Edinburgh Castle. She was canonized in 1249. After Malcolm's death, the frontier between the kingdoms of Scotland and E ngland was clearly defined for the first time. Anglo-Norman influence in S cotland was promoted by the subsequent marriages of Malcolm's sons to Engl ish brides.
Victor of Bannockburn 1314. Scotland liberator and epic hero. Assumed t he Crown and Royal Dignity of Scotland, thus bringing to an end the Seco nd interregnum, in defiance of Edward I of England. From The Biographical Dictionary Robert VIII (Robert Bruce; Robert the Bruce) Scottish revolutionary and ru ler; king of Scotland 1306-1329; defeated English at battle of Bannockbu rn 1314, liberating Scotland from England 1274-1329 Crowned 27 MAR 1306 Scone Abbey, Perthshire, Scotland Bruce, Robert (1274-1329), liberator, and, as Robert I, king of Scotland ( 1306-1329). He was originally named Robert de Bruce, and to distinguish h im from his father and grandfather, who had the same name, he is often ref erred to as Robert de Bruce VIII. He is also called Robert the Bruce. As E arl of Carrick he paid homage to King Edward I of England, who, in 1296, d efeated King John de Baliol and thereafter refused to acknowledge anoth er king of Scotland. Bruce later abandoned Edward's cause and joined oth er Scottish leaders in taking up arms for the independence of his countr y. In 1299, the year after the Scottish patriot Sir William Wallace was de feated by Edward at Falkirk, Bruce, then still in favor with Edward, was m ade one of the four regents who ruled the kingdom in the name of Balio l. In 1305 he was one of those consulted in the decision to make Scotla nd a province of England. In 1306 he met an old enemy, the Scottish patri ot John Comyn, who was the nephew of Baliol; a quarrel occurred, and Bru ce stabbed Comyn. Bruce proclaimed his right to the throne, and on March 2 7, 1306, he was crowned king at Scone. Bruce was deposed, however, in 1307 by Edward's army and forced to fl ee to the highlands and then to the little island of Rathlin on the coa st of Antrim (now in Northern Ireland). In his absence all his estates we re confiscated, and he and his followers were excommunicated. He continu ed to recruit followers, however, and in less than two years he wrested ne arly all of Scotland from the English. Bruce again defeated the Engli sh in 1314 in the Battle of Bannockburn (see Bannockburn, Battle of), twi ce invaded England, and in 1323 concluded with King Edward II of Engla nd a truce for 13 years. After the accession of King Edward III in 1327, w ar again broke out, and the Scots won again. In 1328 they secured a trea ty recognizing the independence of Scotland and the right of Bruce to t he throne. In his later years Bruce was stricken with leprosy and lived in seclusi on at Cardross Castle, on the northern shore of the Firth of Clyde, whe re he died. He was succeeded by his son, David II. Bruce's nephew, Robe rt II, who succeeded David, was the first king of the Stuart house of Engl ish and Scottish royalty. "Bruce, Robert," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2000 http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2000 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reser ved. From Robert the Bruce website: http://www.bruce.org.uk/ How it all Started... Edward Bruce had foolishly and impetuously accepted a challenge from Sir W alter Mowbray the commander of Sterling castle in 1313 where Edward was ca mped in an attempt to reclaim the castle. Frustrated by his inability to take the castle by force, Edward was forc ed to lay siege in an attempt to starve the garrison into submission. Aft er more than three months, Sir Walter, knowing of Edward's impetuous chara cter offered Bruce a challenge. The challenge was that he would give up t he castle freely to Bruce if by a year from the day,(24th June 1314), t he garrison had not been rescued by battle. Without consulting their respective monarchs, the two men pledged their ho nour to fulfil this private treaty. The challenge to England was too great and too public to be ignored. Robe rt the Bruce learnt of the challenge and was outraged at his brother's beh aviour. The confrontation between Robert & Edward is recorded as being par ticularly violent. Robert found he was unable to disown the pledge his brother had made a nd he knew that England would come to the rescue of Sterling and so for t he next year he concentrated on capturing the English castles in Lothian a nd training his men for the inevitable battle with England. A Year Later.. At the end of April 1314, Robert the Bruce called a halt to all expeditio ns and made his headquarters in the forest at Torwood, and began to gath er his forces. A summons to military service had been issued throughout Sc otland and as the weather turned milder, groups of men under their knigh ts began to arrive. Edward Bruce with his men, Randolph and Douglas with theirs arrived. Th ey were all greeted in person by Bruce who in turn allotted them for train ing to one of the four divisions Robert had organised his army into. The a rmy's vaguard commanded by Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray,was made up of 5 00 men from Moray, Ross, Inverness, Elgin, Nairn and Forres. Edward Bruce was placed in command of the second division numbering 1000 m en drawn from Buchan, Mar, Angus, Mearns, Menteith, Strathearn, Galloway a nd Lennox. A third division was nominally placed in the care of Walter Ste wart but the divisional commander was his cousin James Douglas. The 1000 m en of this division came from Lanark, Renfrew and the Borders. King Robert the Bruce commanded the fourth division made up of 2000 men fr om Carrick, Kyle, Cunningham, Highlanders from western Scotland and Ang us Macdonald with his men from the Western Isles. The fifth and final divi sion numbered 500 light horse and a small company of Ettrick forest arche rs under the command of Sir Robert Keith. All told, the Scottish army numb ered between 5000 and 6000 men. Little more than quarter the size of Ki ng Edward's English army. By the 10th June 1314, Edward II had amassed the largest army at Berwick a ny English monarch had ever commanded. Among this massive force numbered s ome Scots who were still opposed to Bruce. John Comyn, son of 'Red' Comyn whom Bruce had murdered, the Earl of Angu s, Comyn's brother as well as knights from France, Brittany, Germany, Poit ou and Guienne joined Edward's force. Serious Business The army was comprised of an elite force of 2500 heavy cavalry with each h orseman clad in chain mail. The horses were strong and were protected by ' strappings' to trap and entangle the infantrymen's sword or spear thrust s. The riders were armed with twelve foot lances, battle axes and swor ds or mace. Then there came the 3000 strong contingent of the most deadly corp d' eli te - the Welsh archers. These men were so adept and expert in the u se of a longbow, they could loose their arrows with such speed that five s hafts would be airborne at once. The main body of Edward's army was comprised of foot soldiers - 15,0 00 of them armed with spears, shields and swords and protected by steel he lmets and quilted coats. On 17th June 1314, Edward II set out from Berwick to be at Sterling on t he appointed day. The army was arranged in ten divisions and Edward set o ff as if on a pilgrimage not to do battle. By 21st June he had only reach ed Edinburgh. On 22nd June the army was camped at Falkirk still ten mil es and 36 hours away from Stirling. The Scottish army was camped ahe ad in the forest of Torwood. As commander -in -chief, Bruce was well aware that any chance of success a gainst such overwhelming odds rested in his ability to galvanise his forc es into a coherent, well trained and disciplined army. Knowing full well that he had neither the numbers, horses and equipme nt to fight the English cavalry, he would have to fight on foot and use t he schiltron to its best advantage. Any weaknesses the English had that we re known to Bruce or displayed on the battlefield were to be taken advanta ge of. Among the problems faced by Bruce was the Highlanders. They were known f or their ambushes and wild charges into battle and had little regard for d iscipline. The use of the schiltron had also to be readdressed. Previously they we re used as static and defensive units. Bruce devised that the schiltron wo uld now be used as an offensive mobile unit. Taking Advantage One of the advantages Bruce had over the English was his relationship wi th the humble foot soldier. Bruce took pains to make himself known to all his men. The Scottish chiefs and landowners were accustomed to fighting alongside t heir men. When they did so, they wore lighter armour than when on horseba ck whilst the men wore steel helmets, steel gloves either back or front br eastpieces or padded leather jackets. All were armed with twelve-foot spea rs and swords or axes. During the two month period Bruce used to train h is troops, he was welcomed everywhere he went. He always greeted his men i ndividually with a cheerful salutation and always encouraged them. Like many great leaders in history who followed Bruce, he gained the tru st and confidence of his army. They were willing to fight and die for h im to uphold his honour and the cause for which they were now preparing. The English leaders meanwhile retained their aloofness from their men. T he class system of English society carried over to the battlefield. The En glish nobles would never deign to fight alongside "lesser mortals" a nd as such were kept remote from those on whom their battles depended. Robert the Bruce used the time for training his army to also select the si te for the battle against the English. Bruce's generalship now came to t he fore. He now proved himself to be a military commander with superb tact ical & strategic abilities and chose a site which was 'almost the copybo ok military position for the strategic defence of Stirling Castle'. Almost two miles north from Torwood, the Roman road dipped down to the val ley of the Bannock burn. From the hills to the west the burn descended thr ough wooded slopes and meadows to the ford and then plunged into a deep gu lly near the hamlet of Bannock. It cut its way through the boglan ds in an arc to the northeast to debouch into the Firth of Forth. To the n orth of this natural obstacle on the left of the road lay an area of undul ating grassland backed by thick woods. On the right a narrow stretch of me adow ended abruptly at its eastern edge in a steep bank, dropping down in to the Carse of Balquiderock, a flat plateau of clayland embraced by the a rms of the Pelstream and the Bannock burn. Beyond these were marshlands, i ntersected by streams, extending to the Firth of Forth. No advance by the English could be made from the east across this soft, sp ongy area nor could they detour to the west through unbroken forest. The o nly way to approach Stirling was along the Roman road or east of the gul ly and by fording the Bannock where the banks were lower and advancing alo ng the public track, they could pass outside the New Park under the escarp ment at the Carse's edge. To prevent the English cavalry deploying onto t he open ground either side of the Roman road, Bruce ordered the ar ea to be honeycombed with pits dug a foot in breadth and knee deep then ca mouflaged with brushwood and grass. He also had trees felled and plac ed in barricades across any tracks through the forest to prevent English h orsemen access. Bruce must have reconnoitered the area on a lot of occasions as was prov en by the smoothness with which his army moved to their positions before b attle. Bruce had sent James Douglas and Sir Robert Keith out on a patr ol to monitor the progress of the English army. On Saturday 22nd June, th ey returned with news which they delivered in private. They told the Ki ng that the English were on the move from Edinburgh in vast numbers. Th ey also told Bruce that they had never before seen such a multitude of mou nted men and columns of foot soldiers and archers with lines of wagons str etching far into the distance. Bruce advised them to keep this informati on to themselves and rather to let it be known that the English were advan cing in great disorder lest the news of the vast numbers of the enemy disc ourage his men. The King then ordered that all camp followers, grooms a nd those too ill-armed to retire with the wagons train of food and equipme nt to a valley hidden behind Gillies Hill. Soldiers who had arrived too la te to enroll in his trained formations were also ordered to accompany th em and to wait there for further orders. After ensuring the safety of t he noncombatants, Bruce ordered the vanguard and the other two divisio ns to their prepared positions north of the Bannock burn. The vanguard und er Thomas Randolph to St Ninian's Kirk to watch the track along the Cars e, and the divisions of Douglas and Edward Bruce echeloned to his right wh ile he, Bruce, with his division remained as rearguard in Torwood to cov er their withdrawal. When this had been completed he brought his men acro ss the burn and took his place to the right of his brother's division. T he whole army was now in place facing southeast down a gradual slope whi ch gave them clear sight of the entry to the New Park and the Carse. And t here after placing sentries, they slept. Soon after sunrise on the 23rd June, the Scottish army heard Mass and pray ed to God for their cause. Since it was also the vigil of St John the Bapt ist, they observed it as a fast, taking only bread and water. After arming themselves and taking their stations, King Robert the Bruce h ad it proclaimed to each division that if any were of faint heart they we re to depart at once. To this a great shout arose from the troops that a ll would conquer or die. The English reached the Torwood about noon and halted. They were met by Mo wbray, Governor of Stirling Castle who had made a very wide detour to co me and meet them. Mowbray pointed out to them that there was no need to l et a battle take place for under the laws of chivalry, the English had ful filled their obligation by arriving within three leagues of their objecti ve on the appointed day. However, Edward II had not amassed such a huge ar my and marched them so many miles to let the Scots elude him yet agai n. He wanted to rout them and march triumphantly to the gates of Stirli ng Castle which he could see in the distance. The English leaders held a c onsultation and Mowbray, who been able to observe the Scottish preparation s, warned them that they could not attack from the west due to the barrica des and that in front of them the Scottish forces were drawn up in the N ew Park. They decided that the vanguard under the Earl of Gloucester wou ld advance along the Roman road in the hope that the sheer size of this fo rce would scare the Scots into retirement. If not, Gloucester's heavy cava lry would sweep them aside. At the same time a hand picked body of 600 kni ghts under Sir Robert Clifford and Sir Henry Beaumont would advance alo ng the public track at the edge of the Carse to get behind the Scots to c ut off their retreat. A delay was caused by the intervention of the Ea rl of Hereford who as High Constable insisted it was his hereditary rig ht to lead the army. This was resolved by making him joint commander of t he vanguard with Gloucester. As the English vanguard came down across the meadow, their lines contract ed to a column to cross the burn. In the lead were Hereford and Gloucest er and 50 yards ahead of them rode Sir Henry de Bohun, clad in full armo ur on a powerful horse with a spear in his hand. As he came through the tr ees on the north bank of the burn he saw in full view a lone rider inspect ing the Scottish troops half hidden in the woodland. This rider was on a g rey palfrey with an axe in his hand and a golden circlet around his helme t. Recognizing the King of Scots, de Bohun couched his lance and gallop ed towards him. The sensible thing for Bruce to have done would have been to quietly fa ll back within the ranks of his soldiers. But who knows what thoughts pass ed through his mind on seeing a lone knight charging at him. Perhaps he w as influenced by seeing the crest of the de Bohuns on the surcoat of his a ssailant. Edward I had given the de Bohuns the Bruce lands of Annandale a nd Carrick while Bruce was a fugitive and Edward II had also given them h is lands in Essex. Then again how could he the third greatest knight in Ch ristiandom, victor of so many tournaments retreat from this challenge befo re the eyes of so many Scotsmen who were prepared to die for him? So he tu rned his horse and cantered towards the de Bohun, and as the thunderous ch arge came near he swerved and rising in his stirrups brought down his a xe with such force on de Bohun's head that he cut through the helmet, sku ll and brain and his axe handle split in two. For a minute there was a stunned silence on both sides, and then with a wi ld cry the Highlanders of the King's division charged the English caval ry who were now experiencing difficulties in trying to line up on the op en ground below. The camouflaged pits were causing them great confusion a nd many of the English horses fell into them. The Earl of Gloucester was f lung from his stumbling horse and was saved by his squires. The rest to ok flight. Bruce stopped the Highlanders and in an eloquent tribute to his training b rought the Highlanders back to their lines. His brother and the other Sco ts commanders gathered around him and as far as they dared, told him off f or the rash act which could have seen him killed and been the ruin of th em all. Bruce said nothing. He stared sadly at the broken axe handle!
Source: http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:a11159 &id=I088 8 Letter to Gladys from Paul Teel mentions an attached list of the Scott gen ealogy which shows Alice's siblings. This letter says the Scotts came fr om Kentucky to Maysville, Arkansas. There are two Scotts rejected from Daw es who could have been her father: William A., 68 and Edmond, 81. Also Jo hn T. 64. O'Bierne shows two Cherokee related Scotts: James A. Sr born circa 1827, m arried Fannie M. Thompson, son was James A. Scott, Jr, born July 13, 18 47 in McDonald Co, Missouri. John S. Scott born Jefferson County, Ohio Mar ch, 1837, son of Merchant Schott and Mary Stringer. In 1871 John mov ed to Ft. Gibson, married Margaret Coody, daughter of Daniel Coody. Had o ne son, Walker born August 14, 1872. She probably died before 1902 since s he wasn't on her husband's Dawes roll. A Susan A. Scott who was married in 1882 and was born near Fort Gibson, pr obably about 1860, may have been a sister. Susan's parents were Sterling S cott and Jennie Woodward from Tennessee.
This line is believed to have been Choctaw or Chickasaw Indian by the desc endants of this family. Her place of birth in the Carolinas brings that in to question unless her family was part of Squirrel Kings group. Some of th at group did inter-marry with this line. JCT 7/31/2001 Other sources dispute the name Bethany Scott and state her name was Elizab eth with no surname. See http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi? op=GET&db=bjm&id=I5077 for information.
Cautionary Note: Some sources list her surname as Thornton.