Notes for Benjamin "Berry" RUSH

RUSH, Benjamin, signer of the Declaration of Independence, born in Byber ry
Township, Pa., 24 Dec., 1745' died in Philadelphia, 19 April, 1813. H is
ancestor, John, who was a captain of horse in Cromwell's army, immigrat ed to
this country in 1683, and left a large number of descendants. Benjam in's
father died when the son was six years old. His earliest instructor w as his
uncle, Rev. Samuel Finley, subsequently pres­ident of Princeton, w ho prepared
him for that college He was graduated in 1760, the medical dep artment of the
University of Edinburgh in 1768, after studying under Dr. J ohn Redman, of
Philadelphia. He also attended medical lectures in Engla nd and in Paris,
where he enjoyed the friendship of Benjamin Franklin, w ho advanced the means
of paying His expenses. In August 1769, he return ed to the United States and
settled in Philadelphia, where he was elect ed professor of chemistry in the
City medical college.

In 1771 he published essays on slavery, temperance, and health, and in 17 74
he delivered the annual oration before the Philosophical society on t he "
Natural History of Medicine among the Indians of North America." He e arly
engaged in pre-Revolutionary movements, and wrote constantly for t he press on
colonial rights. He was a member of the provin­cial conferen ce of
Pennsylvania, and chairman of the committee that reported that it h ad become
expedient for congress to declare independence, and surgeon to t he
Pennsylvania navy from 17 Sept., 1775, to 1 July, 1776. He was then ele cted
to the latter body, and on 4 July, 1776, signed the declaration, he m arried
Julia, a daughter of Richard Stockton, the same year, was appoint ed
surgeon-general of the middle department in April, 1777, and in July be came

Although in constant attendance on the wounded in the battles of Trento n,
Princeton, the Brandywine, Germantown, and in the sickness at Valley Fo rge,
he found time to write four long public letters to the people of Penn
sylvania, in which he commented severely on the articles of confederati on of
1776, and urged a revision on the ground of the dangers of giving le gislative
powers to a single house. In February 1778, he resigned his mili tary office
on account of wrongs that had been done to the soldiers in reg ard to the
hospital stores, and coldness between himself and General Washi ngton, but,
though he was without means at that time, he refused all compe nsation for his
service in the army.

He then returned to Philadelphia, resumed his practice and duties as profe
ssor, and for twenty-nine years was surgeon to the Pennsylvania hospita l, and
port physician to Philadelphia in 1790-'3. He was a founder of Dick inson
college and the Philadelphia dispensary, and was largely interest ed in the
establishment of Public schools, concerning which he publish ed an address,
and in the founding of the College of physicians, of whi ch he was one of the
first censors. He was a member of the State conventi on that ratified the
constitution of the United States in 1787, and of th at for forming a state
constitution in the same year, in which he endeavor ed to procure the
incorporation of his views on Public schools, and a Pen al code on which he
had previously written essays. After that service he r etired from political
life. While in occupation of the chair of chemist ry in Philadelphia medical
college, he was elected to that of the theory a nd practice of medicine, to
which was added the professorship of the insti tutes and practice of medi­cine
and clinical practice in 1791, and th at of the practice of physic in 1797,
all of which he held until his deat h. During the epidemic of yellow fever in
1793 he rendered good service, v isiting from 100 to 120 patients daily, but
his bold and original practi ce made him enemies, and a paper edited by
William Cobbett, called "Pet er Poreupine's Gazette," was so violent in its
attacks upon him that it w as prosecuted, and a jury rendered a verdict of
85,000 damages, which D r. Rush distributed among the poor; His practice
during the epidemic convi nced him that yellow fever is not contagious, and he
was the first to proc laim that the disease is indigenous. From 1799 till his
death he was treas urer of the U. S. mint. "His name," says Dr. Thomas Young,
"was famili ar to the medical world as the Sydenham of America. His accurate
observati ons and correct discrimination of epidemic diseases well entitled
him to t his distinction, while in the original energy of his reasoning he far
exce eded his prototype."

He was a member of nearly every medical, literary, and benevolent institut ion
in (his country, and of many foreign societies, and for his repli es to their
queries on the subject of yellow fever received a medal from t he king of
Prussia in 1805, and gifts from other crowned heads, He succeed ed Benjamin
Franklin as president of the Pennsylvania society for the abol ition of
slavery, was president of the Philadelphia medical society, vice- president
and a founder of the Philadelphia Bible society, advocating t he use of the
Scriptures as a text­book in the public schools, an originat or of the
American philosophical society, of which he was a vice preside nt in
1799-1800. He taught, more clearly than any other physician of his d ay, to
distinguish diseases and their effects, gave great impulse to the s tudy of
medicine in this country, and made Philadelphia the centre of th at science in
the United States, more than 2,250 students having attend ed his lectures
during his professorship in the Medical college of Philade lphia. Yale gave
him the degree of LL. D. in 1812. His pub­lications inclu de "Medical
Inquiries and Observations" (5 vols., Philadelphia, 1789-'9 8; 3d ed., 4
vols.. 1809) ; "Essays, Literary, Moral, and Philo­sophica l" (1798 ; 2d ed.,
1806) ; "Sixteen Introduc­tory Lectures" (1811); and "D iseases of the Mind"
(1812; 5th ed., 1835). He also edited several medic al works.

His son, Richard, statesman, born in Philadelphia, 29 Aug., 1780; died the re,
30 July, 1859, was graduated at Princeton in 179'7, and admitted to t he bar
of Philadelphia in 1800, and early in his career won distincti on by his
defense of William Duane, editor of the "Aurora," on a char ge of libeling
Gov. Thomas McKean. He became solicitor of the guardia ns of the poor of
Philadelphia in 1810, and attorney general of Pennsylvan ia in 1811,
comptroller of the U. S. treasury in November of the same yea r, and in
1814-'17 was U.S. attorney general. He became temporary U. S. se cretary of
state in 1817, and was then appointed minister to England, whe re he remained
till 1825, negotiating several important treaties, especial ly that of 1818
with Lord Castlereagh respecting the fisheries, the northw est boundary-line,
conflicting claims beyond the Rocky mountains, and t he slaves of American
citizens that were carried off on British ships, con trary to the treaty of
Ghent. He was recalled in 1825 to accept the portfo lio of the treasury, which
had been offered him by President Adams, a nd in 1828 he was a candidate for
the vice-presidency on the ticket with M r. Adams. In 1829 he negotiated in
Holland a loan for the corporatio ns of Washing­ton, Georgetown, D.C., and
Alexandria, Va. He was a commissi oner to adjust a boundary dispute between
Ohio and Michigan in 1835, a nd in 1836 was appointed by President Jackson a
commissioner to obtain t he legacy of James Smithson (q. v.), which he left to
found the Smithsoni an institution. The case was then pending in the English
chancery court, a nd in August 1838, Mr. Rush returned with the amount,

 He was minister to France in 1847-'51, and in 1848 was the first of the m
inisters at that court to recog­nize the new republic, acting in advan ce of
in­structions from his government. Mr. Rush began his literary care er in
1812, when he was a member of the Madison cabinet, by writing vigoro us
arti­cles in defense of the second war with England. His relations wi th John
Quincy Adams were intimate, and affected his whole career. He beca me an
anti-Mason in 1831, in 1834 wrote a powerful re­port against the Ba nk of the
United States, and ever afterward cooperated with the Democrat ic Party. He
was a member of the American philosophical society. His publi cations include
"Codification of the Laws of the United States" (5 vols ., Philadel­phia,
1815); "Narrative of a Residence at the Court of Lond on from 1817 till 1825"
(London, 1833); a second volume of the same wor k, "Comprising Incidents,
Official and Personal, from 1819 till 1825" (18 45 ; 3d ed., under the title
of the "Court of Lon­don from 1819 till 182 5, with Notes by the Author's
Nephew," 1873) ; "Washington in Domestic Lif e," which consists of personal
letters from Washington to his private secr etary, Col. Tobias Lear, and some
personal recollections (1857); and a vol ume of " Occasional Productions,
Political, Diplomatic, and Miscellaneou s, including a chance at the Court and
Government of Louis Philippe, and t he French Revolution of 1848," published
by his sons (1860).

 Richard's son, Benjamin Rush, born in Philadelphia, 23 Jan., 1811; di ed in
Paris, France, 30 June, 1877, was graduated at Princeton in 1829, st udied
law, and in 1833 was admitted to the bar in Philadelphia. In 18 37 he was
appointed secretary of legation at London, where he served f or a time as
chargd d'affaires. He published "An Appeal for the Union" (Ph iladelphia,
1860) and "Letters on the Rebellion" (1862).

Another son of the first Benjamin, James, physician, b. in Philadelphia, P a.,
1 March, 1786; died there, 26 May, 1869, was graduated at Princet on in 1805,
and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvan ia in 1809. He
subsequently studied in Edinburgh, and, returning to Philad elphia, practiced
for several years, but afterward relinquished the acti ve duties of his
profession to devote himself to scientific and literary p ursuits. He left
$1,000,000 to the Philadelphia library company for the er ection of the
Ridgeway branch of the Philadelphia library. His publicatio ns include
"Philosophy of the Human Voice" (Philadelphia, 1827); "Hamle t, a Dramatic
Prelude in Five Acts" (1834)" "Analysis of the Human Intelle ct" (2 vols.,
1865) ; and " Rhymes of Contrast on Wisdom and Folly" (1869) .

Additional Information:
Notes for Benjamin Rush: Residences: 'Shippen Mansion' in Philadelph ia He
first lived near Trinity P.E. Church as a child. Church: Christ Chur ch,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The beginning of American medicine ca me in 1765,
when John Morgan established the first medical school in Phila delphia, PA. He
was joined by William Shippen, who unsuccessfully tri ed to start a medical
school in the same city 3 years earlier, and Benjam in Rush from Philadelphia.
It was Benjamin Rush who went on to teach so me 3,000 medical students in his
lifetime. Rush took a dogmatic approa ch to medicine, convinced that all
diseases had essentially the same caus e: fever. His treatments were sometimes
more dreaded than the illnes s. In psychiatry his work was more valuable. He
viewed mental illne ss as a product of physical causes, a great advance over
theories of the d ay. He worked for many years with insane patients at
Pennsylvania Hospita l, advocating humane treatment for them. Rush's 'Syllabus
of a Course of L ectures on Chemistry (1770)' was the first chemistry textbook
publish ed in the United States. 'Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the
Dise ases of the Mind (1812)' was the first American treatise on psychiatr y.
In 1791, Rush organized the medical school at the University of Pennsyl vania.
September 23, 1800 - In the midst of a yellow-fever epidemic, Thom as
Jefferson wrote the following letter to Benjamin Rush, who was livi ng in
Philadelphia: 'I have to...congratulate you on the healthiness of yo ur city.
Still Baltimore, Norfolk and Providence admonish us that we are n ot clear of
our new scourge. When great evils happen I am in the hab it of looking out for
what good may arise from them as consolations to u s, and Providence has in
fact so established the order of things, as th at most evils are the means of
producing some good. The yellow fever wi ll discourage the growth of great
cities in our nation, and I view great c ities as pestilential to the morals,
the health and the liberties of ma n. True, they nourish some of the elegant
arts, but the useful ones can th rive elsewhere, and less perfection in the
others, with more health, virt ue and freedom, would be my choice.' (Thomas
Jefferson, in a letter to Ben jamin Rush, dated September 23, 1800) October 6,
1800 - In his reply to Th omas Jefferson's letter about 'Cities,' Benjamin
Rush wrote the followi ng to Jefferson: 'I agree with you in your opinion of
cities. Cowper the p oet very happily expresses our ideas of them compared
with the country. 'G od made the country - - man made cities.' I consider them
in the same lig ht that I do abscesses on the human body, viz., as reservoirs
of all the i mpurities of a community.' (Benjamin Rush, in a reply letter to
Thomas Jef ferson, dated October 6, 1800) Later in life Benjamin Rush was
instrument al in reconciling two old political antagonists, former presidents
John Ad ams and Thomas Jefferson. The following comprehensive narrative about
Benj amin Rush is taken from 'The Signer's of the Declaration of Independence
,' written in 1982. The full reference of this source follows after this a
ccount: '...At the age of 5, his farmer-gunsmith father died. The youth ob
tained a sound education at West Nottingham Academy, in Rising Sun, Maryla nd,
operated by an uncle...Returning to Philadelphia in 1760, he apparent ly first
considered studying law but chose medicine. In 1766, at the e nd of a 5-year
apprenticeship to a local physician, he sailed to Scotlan d, were 2 years
later the University of Edinburgh awarded him a medical de gree.' 'While
there, assisted by a fellow college alumnus and one day fell ow signer,
Richard Stockton, Rush helped overcome the objections of John W itherspoon's
wife and persuaded Witherspoon to accept the presidency of t he College of New
Jersey. In 1769, after further training in London, whe re Rush made the
acquaintance of Benjamin Franklin, and a short visit to P aris, he came back
to Philadelphia and set up practice. Before the year w as out, he obtained the
first professorship of chemistry in the count ry at the College of
Philadelphia, and wrote the first American textbo ok on the subject.' 'While
prospering as a physician, Rush cultivated t he friendship of such men as
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Thomas Pain e. In fact, Rush suggested to
the latter that he write his famous tract 'C ommon Sense' [1776], supplied the
title, and aided in its publicatio n. He also contributed political articles
to the press. That same yea r, he married Stockton's eldest daughter, Julia.'
'Rush's tour in the Cont inental Congress was brief. In June 1776 he attended
a Pennsylvania confer ence of patriots and helped draft a declaration of the
colony's support f or national independence. In recognition of these services,
the followi ng month the provincial convention sent him to Congress - after
the adopti on of the Declaration. In December, Philadelphia threatened by
British inv asion, the Government fled to Baltimore. Rush apparently, however,
did n ot spend much time there. That same month, he relocated his wife at the
ho me of a relative in Cecil County, Maryland, and took part in General Washi
ngton's New Jersey campaign as a surgeon in the Philadelphia militia.' ' In
April 1777, not reelected to Congress because of his opposition to t he
Pennsylvania constitution of the previous year, Rush accepted the posit ion of
surgeon general in the Middle Department of the Continental Army. A bhorring
the deplorable conditions prevailing in the medical servic e, in a complaint
to Washington he accused his superior, Dr. William Shipp en, of
maladministration. Washington referred the matter to Congress, whi ch
vindicated Shippen. In January 1778 Rush angrily resigned. Strongly ant
i-royalist, his subsequent criticisms of Washington and his participati on in
the Conway Cabal (a secret movement to replace General Washington wi th
General Horatio Gates), ended his military and, for a time, his politic al
career. He resumed his medical practice in Philadelphia.' 'In 1787 Ru sh wrote
tracts in the newspapers endorsing the U.S Constitution. In the C ommonwealth
ratifying convention that same year, he aided James Wils on in the struggle
for its adoption. In 1789-1790 Rush attended the Pennsy lvania constitutional
convention. From 1797 until 1813 he served as Treasu rer of the U.S. Mint.'
'Meanwhile Rush, through his writings and lecture s, had become probably the
best known physician and medical teacher in t he land, and he fostered
Philadelphia's ascendancy as the early medical ce nter of the Nation. His
students, who idolized him, came from as far aw ay as Europe to attend his
classes at the College of Philadelphia, and i ts successors the University of
the State of Pennsylvania and the Universi ty of Pennsylvania (1791). He also
served on the staff of the Pennsylvan ia Hospital from 1783 until the end of
his life, helped found the Philadel phia College of Physicians (1787), and
held office as first president of t he Philadelphia Medical Society. In 1786
he founded the Philadelphia Dispe nsary, the first free medical clinic in the
country. His work among the in sane at the Philadelphia Hospital resulted in
'Medical Inquiries and Obser vations Upon the Diseases of the Mind (1812),'
which to some degree foresh adowed modern psychiatric techniques.' 'Rush won
much less favor from h is professional peers than he did from his students.
His critics particula rly attacked his theory of bleeding and purging for the
treatment of disea se. Although he was one of the few doctors who remained in
Philadelphia du ring the devastating yellow fever epidemics of 1793 and 1798,
his opponen ts criticized his methods of treatment.' 'Aroused by the idealism
of the R evolution as well as the plight of the poor and sick he encountered
in h is medical practice, Rush helped pioneer various humanitarian and social
m ovements that were to restructure U.S. life in the 19th century. These inc
luded abolition of slavery and educational and prison reform. Rush also co
ndemned public and capital punishment and advocated temperance. Many of h is
reform articles appeared in 'Essays: Literary, Moral, and Philosophic al
(1798).' 'Finally, Rush helped organize and sat as a trustee of Dickins on
College (1783); aided in founding the Pennsylvania Society for Promoti ng the
Abolition of Slavery (1787) and later served as its president; enjo yed
membership in the American Philosophical Society; and was a co-found er and
vice president of the Philadelphia Bible Society, which advocated t he use of
scripture in the public schools.' 'A typhus epidemic claimed Rus h's life at
the age of 67 in 1813. Survivng him were six sons and three da ughters of the
13 children he had fathered. His grave is in Christ Chur ch Burial Ground at
Philadelphia.' (Robert G. Ferris and Richard E. Morri s, 'The Signers of the
Declaration of Independence,' pp. 123-126 [1982: Fl agstaff, Arizona:
Interpretive Publications, Inc]) (Editor's Note: Mu ch of the information
concerning the descendancy of Dr. Benjamin Rush w as taken from Henry J.
Williams, 'A Brief Account of the Ancestors and Des cendants of Benjamin Rush,
M.D. of the City of Philadelphia: Compiled fr om family records and his own
personal knowledge by his Son-In-Law Hen ry J. Williams,' 1869. Photocopies
from this resource were secured from t he Allen County Library, Fort Wayne,
Return to Benjamin "Berry" RUSH

Notes for Mary "Polly" RUSSELL

Per:  Larry & Elaine Blackman  "Blackman - Farm er
She went as a young child to Monnet, Barry Co., MO. One source gave her pa
rents as James/Dorcas (POPE) RUSSELL. However James & Dorcas would have be en
a much earlier generation than her parents.
Return to Mary "Polly" RUSSELL

Notes for Mary Jane RUSSELL

Mary Jane Russell is shown on the 1860 United States Census for Cannon Cou nty,
Tennessee living in the household of her grandson Walker Todd (s on of
William). She is listed as Mary Todd age 94
Return to Mary Jane RUSSELL

Notes for Radbard of RUSSIA

Source: Robert Sewell  http://www3.sympatico.c
a/robert.sewell/saga.html &

In the early middle ages, the land known to-day as Russia was compos ed of
several small city states, and it is to be imagined that Radbard est ablished
himself as "king" of one of these cities.  However, historical ev idence
indicates that Scandinavians such as Radbard journeyed to Russia ci rca 850,
and certainly no earlier that 800.  It is difficult to reconci le this fact
with the concept that Radbard's great X2 grandson is sa id to be the
historical figure Ivar "the Boneless" Ragnarsson, who beca me King of Dublin
in 856.

Norse and Icelandic Sagas
Sagas are long narratives that appeared in Norway, Iceland and other par ts of
Scandinavia during the middle ages.  These stories were passed do wn orally
for many generations prior to being transcribed in the 13th cent ury.  Many
sagas were written in a objective style that led some early his torians to
believe they were historically accurate.  When later research r evealed that
the sagas made use fictitious situations vaguely ground ed on some remote
historical reality, historians tended to reject them com pletely.

While the value of the sagas as accurate history must certainly be questio
ned, it should also be remembered that the names and spirit of the histo ry
represents the knowledge of a person many centuries closer to the tru th than
we are to-day.

In the 14th century a manuscript by Snorri Sturluson called the Prose Ed da
appeared.  This book of ancient Scandinavian literature was compil ed by him
around 1222. Other sagas include the Elder Edda or Codex Regi us and the
Heimskringla which chronicles the Kings of Norway. The Eddas a re invaluable
sources on pre-Christian Scandinavian culture.  Equally impo rtant is the Saga
of Erik the Red and the Greenlanders' Saga. One of the b est known sagas in
Grettis, which follows the adventures of Grettir, an Ic elandic outlaw who
battles a monster called Glamr, not unlike the Anglo-Sa xon story of Beowulf.
Return to Radbard of RUSSIA

Notes for RUTPERT I

Duke in the Haspengan in 732 and a Count in the Upper Rhine and Worms 7 22 -
Return to RUTPERT I

Notes for Edward RUTTY

Sources: Barbour Collection, CT Vital Records, Microfilm - FHL, Books - Ya
vapai College Library, Online - Windham County, CT at
merrell/windham.html, Microfilm Killingworth, page 114, VR v1, pgs 66 & 81
Return to Edward RUTTY