Notes for Katherine Moleyns of Stoke POGES


Stoke Poges, County Buckinghamshire, possibly, about 5 miles west of Uxbri dge.
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Notes for Edwin Mooring POINTER


He graduated from Cumberland University at Lebanon, Tennessee, and in L aw
Course in the same institution in 1897; was appointed District Cle rk of
Sequoyah County after Oklahoma Statehood.
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Notes for Agnáes of POITOU


Source: ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA
also called AGNES OF AQUITAINE, French AGNÈS DE POITOU, OR AGNÈS D'AQUITAI NE,
second wife of the Holy Roman emperor Henry III. She was regent (1056- 62)
during the minority of her son, the future Henry IV.

Agnes was a daughter of William V the Great, duke of Aquitaine, and w as a
descendant of the kings of Burgundy and Italy. She married Henry I II on Nov.
1, 1043, forming an alliance designed to cement the empire's re lations with
its neighbouring states to the west. On Henry's death she ass umed the regency
for her son until it was wrested from her by Archbishop A nno of Cologne in
1062. Agnes then retired to a convent.
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Notes for Boleslaw I the Brave of POLAND


Source: Encylopedia Britannica
Because the principle of primogeniture was unknown in the country, every s
uccession led to internal strife. Mieszko's successor was Boleslaw I the B
rave. Commanding a huge military force, he sought hegemony in east-centr al
Europe. In 1000 he received in Gniezno Emperor Otto III, who dream ed of
restoring a universal Roman empire and who recognized the soverei gn status of
the Polish duke. Moreover, Otto agreed to an independent Poli sh
ecclesiastical organization that added an archbishopric in Gniezno a nd
bishoprics in Kraków, Wroclaw, and Kolobrzeg to the already extant bish opric
in Poznan. Given the role of the church in medieval statehood, th is was a
great achievement. Paying their respects to St. Adalbert (Vojtech )--the
former bishop of Prague slain by the pagan Prussians and later elev ated to
sainthood--the two rulers sought to coordinate their missionary ac tivities in
the pagan Slav lands between the Elbe and Oder rivers. This ar ea, home of the
so-called Polabian Slavs, formed a kind of buffer betwe en the two states and
was the object of their respective expansion.

The successors of Otto pursued German objectives rather than imperial mira ges
and struggled with Boleslaw, who briefly occupied Bohemia and interven ed in
Kievan Rus. Polish-German strife continued intermittently until 101 8. In 1025
Boleslaw assumed the royal crown, which made him the equal of t he other
monarchs of Europe.

The virtual collapse of the state under Boleslaw's son Mieszko II, who w as
even obliged to renounce his kingly status, showed how much the politic al
fortunes of a state were bound to the personality of its ruler. Mieszko 's
successor, Casimir I, had to flee the country, which was torn by intern al
strife. A pagan reaction against Christianity combined with revolt agai nst
fiscal and administrative burdens to bring about a popular uprising. C asimir
had to be restored by the emperor, Conrad II, who wished to preser ve a
balance of power in the region. Known later as "the Restorer," Casim ir
eventually succeeded in bringing under his sway most of the Polish land s,
reviving the ecclesiastical organization, and making Kraków his capit al in
lieu of Gniezno or Poznan, which had been devastated by the Czechs.

Casimir's son and successor, Boleslaw II the Bold, sought to revive the gr eat
power designs of the first
Boleslaw. Skillfully exploiting the great Investiture Controversy betwe en the
empire and the papacy that affected most of Europe, Boleslaw II sid ed with
Rome and gained the royal crown in 1076. Boleslaw was later dra wn into a
conflict with Stanislaus (Stanislaw), the bishop of Kraków, wh om the king
ordered killed in 1079 under circumstances still debated by hi storians.
Boleslaw then fled to Hungary, where he died. The cult of St. St anislaus, who
was canonized in 1253, became widespread in Poland and was i nvoked to defend
the freedom of religion against the state and ethics agai nst power.

Under Boleslaw's brother and successor, Wladyslaw I Herman, claims to t he
royal crown and to a more ambitious foreign policy were abandoned. Effo rts to
maintain centralized power by the palatine, Sieciech, clashed wi th the
ambitions of the rising magnate class. Poland became torn by intern al
conflicts out of which Boleslaw III the Wry-Mouthed emerged as the so le ruler
(1102-38). Promoting Christianity, he expanded his sway over West ern
Pomerania, whose towns and harbours, such as Wolin, Kolobrzeg, and Szc zecin,
were already important centres of trade and crafts. Eastern, or Gda nsk,
Pomerania came under direct Polish administration. After an invasi on by
Emperor Henry V was repelled, peace prevailed with the empire, and B ohemia
renounced its claims to Silesia.

The period of divisions

Collapse of Boleslaw's governing system

The awareness of centrifugal trends and external dangers led Boleslaw I II to
establish in his testament of 1138 a system meant to assure great er
stability. He divided the state among his sons; the oldest became the s enior
duke, whose domain included the capital in Kraków and who had gener al powers
over military, foreign, and ecclesiastical matters. By the ear ly 13th
century, however, the efforts of the grand duke to exert real cont rols came
to naught. The entire system was characterized by disputes, subd ivisions, and
fratricidal strife into which the neighbouring powers were f requently drawn.

During the period of divisions, lasting almost 200 years (until the ru le of
Casimir III), Poland underwent transformation in almost every sphe re of life.
The centrally controlled early Piast monarchy had been bas ed on a system of
fortified settlements from which an official called t he castellan acted as
administrator, military commander, judge, and tax co llector and tended to the
ruler's domain. Around some settlements there ar ose so-called service
villages, in which artisans produced objects need ed by the dukes and their
retinues. The emerging social pyramid position ed the duke and his officials
and leading warriors on top, with various ca tegories of freemen,
part-freemen, and slaves at the bottom. Between the 1 0th and the 12th
centuries this system slowly began to break down. Improv ed cultivation
methods (notably the three-field system) enhanced the val ue of the land with
which the ruler endowed the church and compensated h is nobles, warriors, and
officials. Estates cultivated by a semi-serf popu lation grew significantly.
The old druzyna changed into a smaller person al guard, the armed force being
composed of nobles performing military ser vice as landholders.
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Notes for Boleslaw II of POLAND


Boleslaus II
Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boleslaus_II

Boleslaus II the Bold 1058-1079, duke of Poland, supported pope Gregory VI I,
but had the Bishop of Krakow St. Stanislaus put to death as a traito r. The
king was forced into exile and Ladislaus Herman of Poland,1079-110 2, became
duke of Poland. After him, two brothers, Zbigniew and Boleslau s, ruled
jointly from 1102-1107
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Notes for Boleslaw Wrymouth III of POLAND


BOLESLAW THE WRY-MOUTHED, POLISH BOLESLAW KRZYWOUSTY, prince of Poland w ho
introduced into his country the senioriate system, by which the elde st son
received the major part of the royal inheritance. He also convert ed the
Pomeranians to Christianity.

Son of Wladyslaw I Herman, ruler of Poland, and Judith of Bohemia, Bolesl aw
III and his illegitimate elder half brother, Zbigniew, each ruled a Pol ish
province during their father's lifetime. Boleslaw III succeeded to h is
father's princely title (no Polish ruler assumed the title of king fr om 1082
to 1296) in 1102 and spent the next several years fighting Zbigni ew for
control of the country. After repelling an invasion of Silesia (110 9) by the
German king Henry V, Boleslaw, who had exiled Zbigniew in 110 7, recalled him
in 1112; soon, however, he accused Zbigniew of treason a nd had him blinded.
Zbigniew died soon thereafter.

For the next 22 years (1113-35) Boleslaw sought control of Poland's form er
province of Pomerania; he conquered Eastern Pomerania in 1122 but did n ot
secure Western Pomerania until he had sworn fealty to the Holy Roman em peror
Lothair II in 1135. Boleslaw sent missionaries into Pomerania, conve rted the
pagan tribes there to Christianity, and integrated the people in to the Polish
state. He then enacted legislation to secure Pomerania and S ilesia for his
eldest son and lesser provinces for his younger sons. The s enioriate system,
a halfway measure between primogeniture and equal distri bution among all male
heirs, was devised to satisfy all princely heirs; y et it caused dissension
and eventually led to the disintegration of the st ate.
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Notes for Kazimierz Karol I the Restorer of POLAND


Casimir I, the Restorer (1015-1058), duke of Poland, was the son of Miesz ko II
of Poland and Rixa von Lothringen. Casimir married Dobronega (Mari a) of Kiev
and they had two children : Boleslaus II, King of Poland and La dislaus
Herman, duke of Poland.
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Notes for Lambert Mieszko II of POLAND


Mieszko II of Poland
Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_II_of_Poland

Mieszko II Lambert, also spelled as Miezko II, was the king of Poland (9 90 -
1034). He was the son of Boleslaw I Chrobry married Rixa von Lothring en.
Their children were Casimir I of Poland, Rixa of Poland, and Gertru de of
Poland.

Mieszko II was very educated man for his time. He was able to read and wri te,
and knew both Greek and Latin. He is known (unjustly) as Mieszko Gnus ny which
means Lazy, Stagnant or Slothful. He received that name becau se of his most
unfortunate ending of rule; but when he begin, he act ed as skillful and
talented ruler. Before he became king in 1025, he was p robably ruling as
father's governor in Krakow, probably since 1013, wh en he supposedly built
many churches.

He waged war against Germany (starting in 1028), quite successfully: he w as
able to repel the German army, and later he even invaded Saxony. He all ied
with Hungary, and Hungarians even for some time took Vienna. This w ar
probably was because of family connections of Mieszko with opposition a gainst
emperor Conrad II in Germany.

To understand what happened later we have to tell a little about Mieszko 's
family. He had older brother, Bezprym, and younger one, Otton. Accordi ng to
old Slavic custom father should divide his heritage between sons; ho wever
kingdoms should not be divided. So Mieszko's brothers receive nothi ng from
father's legacy. What's worse, Bezprym was oldest son so many prob ably felt
that he should be new king. Problem with Bezprym is that he fr om the
beginning was not liked by father, as denoted by his name (Piasts u sually
used names like Boleslaw, Mieszko, later also Kazimierz, Wladysla w, or
Emperor's names: Otton, conrad, Heinrich: but Bezprym is common nam e, which
implies that Boleslaw don't want him to became new ruler). He w as send to
monastery, and he was son of unknown Hungarian wife of Bolesla w, who was
expelled by him later. Both Mieszko's brothers escaped abroa d: Otton to
Germany, Bezprym to Kiev Rus. Soon after both German emperor a nd great duke
of Kiev, Yaroslaw the Wise, allied and made simultaneous inv asions.

Facing two enemies, Germans from west and Rusins from east, Mieszko escap ed
to Czech where he was probably castrated. Bezprym started his rule wi th
sending crown and other king's insignia to Germany. Mieszko returned so on,
but this time he was forced to pledge allegiance to German Emperor, a nd
Poland was divided between him, his brothers Otton and Bezprym, and so me
mysterious Thiedric (probably nephew or cousin). Mieszko was able to re unite
Poland (Otton was killed by one of his own man). What happened ne xt is great
puzzle. Today modern historians are guessing that Mieszko w as killed in plot
organised by aristocracy (1034). After his death, peasan ts revolted. Why and
when, we don't know exactly.

Casimir I of Poland, son of Mieszko, was either expelled by that uprisin g, or
uprising was caused by expelling by aristocracy. Uprising is call ed pagan
reaction, but modern historians are arguing that it was rather ca used by
economical issues (huge new taxes for the Church, militarisati on of early
Polish kingdom: almost all male population server in army et c) than
religious. Priests, monks knights were killed, cities, churches a nd
monasteries were burned. Chaos was even greater when suddenly Czechs in vaded
from the south. land became divided between local rulers, of whom o ne is
known (Maslav, who ruled Masovia). Greater Poland was so devastate d, that is
ceased to be core of Polish kingdom. New Polish kings moved the ir capital to
Little Poland, to Krakow.
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Notes for Mieczislaw (Burislaf of Wendland) I of POLAND


The terms Poland and Poles appear for the first time in medieval chronicl es in
the late 10th century. The land that the Poles, a West Slavic peopl e, came to
inhabit was covered by forests with small areas under cultivati on where clans
grouped themselves into numerous tribes. The dukes (dux) we re originally the
commanders of an armed retinue (druzyna) with which th ey broke the authority
of the chieftains of the clans, thus transforming t he original tribal
organization into a territorial unit. Two tribes, the P olanie, centring
around the fortified settlement (castrum) of Gniezno, a nd the Wishlanie, who
lived around Kraków, expanded to bring other trib es under their control.
Exposed to some missionary activities linked wi th St. Methodius, the state of
Wishlanie fell under the rule of Great Mora via--which was destroyed by the
Magyar invasion of the early 10th century- -and came eventually under the rule
of Mieszko I, the first ruler of the P olanie mentioned in written records. He
is regarded as the founder of t he Piast dynasty, the beginnings of which are
clouded in legend, though t he names of three of his predecessors are known.
Creating what a contempor ary Spanish-Jewish traveler, Ibrahim ibn Ya'kub,
described as the most pow erful of the existing Slav states, Mieszko accepted
Roman Catholicism v ia Bohemia in 966. A missionary bishopric directly
dependent on the papa cy was established in Poznan. This was the true opening
of Polish histor y, for Christianity was a carrier of Western civilization
with which Pola nd was henceforth associated.

Facing the crucial problem of Poland's relationship to the two pilla rs of
medieval Christendom, the Germanic Holy Roman Empire and the papac y, Mieszko
battled the expansive tendencies of the former--a mention th at dates from 963
refers to a struggle with the German dukes--while he sou ght reliance on Rome,
to which he subordinated his state in a curious docu ment, the Dagome Iudex
(c. 991). Poland alternately competed and cooperat ed with neighbouring
Bohemia and Hungary as well as with the principali ty of Kievan Rus. At
Mieszko's death the Polish state stretched from the B altic Sea to the
Carpathian Mountains, resembling in shape post-World W ar II Poland.

Additional information, Mieszko I of Poland
Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_I_of_Poland

Mieszko I (c. 935-May 25 992), son of the semi-legendary Siemomysl, was t he
first (historically known) Piast duke of Poland.

In either 964 or 965 (more probably) he married Dubrawka (or Dobravy), a d
aughter of Boleslaus I, duke of the Bohemians. In 978 he married Oda von H
aldensleben, daughter of Dietrich (Theoderic) of Haldensleben, count of t he
North March (965-985), after abducting her from the monastery of Kalbe.

The early career of Mieszko was dominated by fighting with the tribes of W
ieletes and Volinians south of the Baltic Sea, and their ally, the Saxon c
ount Wichman. Mieszko was baptised in 966, probably under the influen ce of
his Christian first wife and in order to avoid confrontation with t he Holy
Roman Empire to the west; he built a church dedicated to Saint Geo rge at
Gniezno.

At the time of the reign of Mieszko there was no single place serving as t he
capital instead he built serveral castles around his country. One the m ost
important was Ostrow Lednicki (what is supported by the recent archeol ogical
findings). It was a ring-fort some 460 feet in diameter. Inside h is
residence, a fine stone palace, the country's first monumental architec ture.

He had probably one sister of unknown name, and two brothers: one of the m,
name unknown, was killed in battle around 964; and the second, named Cz cibor,
died in the Battle of Cedynia in 972.

Mieszko I had pledged allegiance to emperor Otto I the Great, to Gero, Cou nt
of the Eastern March (ruled from 937-965), to emperor Otto II and aga in to
emperor Otto III.

His reign began around 962 in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska), Cujavia, Maso via
and possibly in eastern Pomerania. In the 960s he probably at least pa rtially
conquered western Pomerania, and in the 990's he conquered Siles ia and Little
Poland (Malopolska).

Much of his military activity was along the Baltic coast, in Pomerani a. He
defeated Count Dietrich of the Northern March at Cedynia in 972, a nd reached
the mouth of the Odra river in 976. The decisive battle, foug ht in 979,
ensured Mieszko's position as count of the march. The followi ng year he
celebrated his victory by dedicating the city of Gdansk at t he mouth of the
Vistula River, to compete with the ports of Szczecin and W olin on the Odra.

In 981 Mieszko I lost the land known only as Grody Czerwienskie to Vladim ir
I, prince of Kiev. In 986 he pledged allegiance to the Emperor Otto II I, and
helped him with wars with the Polabians. Shortly before his dea th he placed
his state under the suzerainty of the Pope in a document usua lly called the
Dagome Iudex.This Dagome Index indexes the lands of the for mer nun Oda, lists
her husband as Dagome and her sons by him. In the seven teenth century a list
of rulers over the Polish territories for the fir st time called them Piasts.

From his first marriage he had a son, his successor Boleslaus, and a daugh
ter, Swiatoslawa, later the wife (as queen Sigrid the Proud) of Eric the V
ictorious, king of Sweden and then (as queen Gunhild) of king Sweyn Forkbe ard
of Denmark, and mother of king Canute of Denmark and England.

From his second marriage he had three sons, Mieszko, Lambert, and Swiatopo lk.
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Notes for Wladyslaw I (Herman) of POLAND


Source Enclyclopedia Britannica
Wladyslaw was crowned king of Poland in 1320, but he no longer controll ed
Silesia--whose dukes opted for John and which henceforth came under t he
Bohemian crown--and the Teutonic Knights seized Eastern Pomerania. T he
massacre the Knights perpetrated in Gdansk in 1308 entered Polish folkl ore.
Thus, the reunited Polish kingdom was deprived of two of its most dev eloped
provinces--Silesian Wroclaw then had some 20,000 inhabitants--and w as
effectively cut off from the Baltic Sea. Cooperating closely with Hunga ry,
Wladyslaw sought unsuccessfully to regain Pomerania through lawsuits a nd
papal arbitration, but the Knights ignored the verdicts. A major batt le with
the invading Knights fought at Plowce in 1331 was a Pyrrhic victo ry for
Wladyslaw

Ladislaus Herman of Poland
Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladislaus_Herman_of_Polan d

Ladislaus Herman (Wladislaw I Herman(n) (1043-?), duke of Poland was the s on
of Casimir I of Poland, duke of Poland. He was the brother of Bolesla us II,
the Bold, King of Poland.
Ladislaus Herman was first married to Judith of Bohemia, then to Judi th of
Swabia, the daughter of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Ladislaus and Judith of Swabia had a daughter named Agnes of Gandersheim
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Notes for Bertha Maggie POLLARD


http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:1982352&id=I 19 2
Bertha was married only 1 time and that was to Edward Walsh on the 16 N ov
1942. She had children by Robert Elliott Stockton, but was never marri ed to
him; Bryce Pollard being one of them. Robert Elliott Stockton was ma rried to
Bertha's sister, Nellie Frances, at the time he had children wi th her.
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