Stoke Poges, County Buckinghamshire, possibly, about 5 miles west of Uxbri dge.
He graduated from Cumberland University at Lebanon, Tennessee, and in L aw Course in the same institution in 1897; was appointed District Cle rk of Sequoyah County after Oklahoma Statehood.
Source: ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA also called AGNES OF AQUITAINE, French AGNÈS DE POITOU, OR AGNÈS D'AQUITAI NE, second wife of the Holy Roman emperor Henry III. She was regent (1056- 62) during the minority of her son, the future Henry IV. Agnes was a daughter of William V the Great, duke of Aquitaine, and w as a descendant of the kings of Burgundy and Italy. She married Henry I II on Nov. 1, 1043, forming an alliance designed to cement the empire's re lations with its neighbouring states to the west. On Henry's death she ass umed the regency for her son until it was wrested from her by Archbishop A nno of Cologne in 1062. Agnes then retired to a convent.
Source: Encylopedia Britannica Because the principle of primogeniture was unknown in the country, every s uccession led to internal strife. Mieszko's successor was Boleslaw I the B rave. Commanding a huge military force, he sought hegemony in east-centr al Europe. In 1000 he received in Gniezno Emperor Otto III, who dream ed of restoring a universal Roman empire and who recognized the soverei gn status of the Polish duke. Moreover, Otto agreed to an independent Poli sh ecclesiastical organization that added an archbishopric in Gniezno a nd bishoprics in Kraków, Wroclaw, and Kolobrzeg to the already extant bish opric in Poznan. Given the role of the church in medieval statehood, th is was a great achievement. Paying their respects to St. Adalbert (Vojtech )--the former bishop of Prague slain by the pagan Prussians and later elev ated to sainthood--the two rulers sought to coordinate their missionary ac tivities in the pagan Slav lands between the Elbe and Oder rivers. This ar ea, home of the so-called Polabian Slavs, formed a kind of buffer betwe en the two states and was the object of their respective expansion. The successors of Otto pursued German objectives rather than imperial mira ges and struggled with Boleslaw, who briefly occupied Bohemia and interven ed in Kievan Rus. Polish-German strife continued intermittently until 101 8. In 1025 Boleslaw assumed the royal crown, which made him the equal of t he other monarchs of Europe. The virtual collapse of the state under Boleslaw's son Mieszko II, who w as even obliged to renounce his kingly status, showed how much the politic al fortunes of a state were bound to the personality of its ruler. Mieszko 's successor, Casimir I, had to flee the country, which was torn by intern al strife. A pagan reaction against Christianity combined with revolt agai nst fiscal and administrative burdens to bring about a popular uprising. C asimir had to be restored by the emperor, Conrad II, who wished to preser ve a balance of power in the region. Known later as "the Restorer," Casim ir eventually succeeded in bringing under his sway most of the Polish land s, reviving the ecclesiastical organization, and making Kraków his capit al in lieu of Gniezno or Poznan, which had been devastated by the Czechs. Casimir's son and successor, Boleslaw II the Bold, sought to revive the gr eat power designs of the first Boleslaw. Skillfully exploiting the great Investiture Controversy betwe en the empire and the papacy that affected most of Europe, Boleslaw II sid ed with Rome and gained the royal crown in 1076. Boleslaw was later dra wn into a conflict with Stanislaus (Stanislaw), the bishop of Kraków, wh om the king ordered killed in 1079 under circumstances still debated by hi storians. Boleslaw then fled to Hungary, where he died. The cult of St. St anislaus, who was canonized in 1253, became widespread in Poland and was i nvoked to defend the freedom of religion against the state and ethics agai nst power. Under Boleslaw's brother and successor, Wladyslaw I Herman, claims to t he royal crown and to a more ambitious foreign policy were abandoned. Effo rts to maintain centralized power by the palatine, Sieciech, clashed wi th the ambitions of the rising magnate class. Poland became torn by intern al conflicts out of which Boleslaw III the Wry-Mouthed emerged as the so le ruler (1102-38). Promoting Christianity, he expanded his sway over West ern Pomerania, whose towns and harbours, such as Wolin, Kolobrzeg, and Szc zecin, were already important centres of trade and crafts. Eastern, or Gda nsk, Pomerania came under direct Polish administration. After an invasi on by Emperor Henry V was repelled, peace prevailed with the empire, and B ohemia renounced its claims to Silesia. The period of divisions Collapse of Boleslaw's governing system The awareness of centrifugal trends and external dangers led Boleslaw I II to establish in his testament of 1138 a system meant to assure great er stability. He divided the state among his sons; the oldest became the s enior duke, whose domain included the capital in Kraków and who had gener al powers over military, foreign, and ecclesiastical matters. By the ear ly 13th century, however, the efforts of the grand duke to exert real cont rols came to naught. The entire system was characterized by disputes, subd ivisions, and fratricidal strife into which the neighbouring powers were f requently drawn. During the period of divisions, lasting almost 200 years (until the ru le of Casimir III), Poland underwent transformation in almost every sphe re of life. The centrally controlled early Piast monarchy had been bas ed on a system of fortified settlements from which an official called t he castellan acted as administrator, military commander, judge, and tax co llector and tended to the ruler's domain. Around some settlements there ar ose so-called service villages, in which artisans produced objects need ed by the dukes and their retinues. The emerging social pyramid position ed the duke and his officials and leading warriors on top, with various ca tegories of freemen, part-freemen, and slaves at the bottom. Between the 1 0th and the 12th centuries this system slowly began to break down. Improv ed cultivation methods (notably the three-field system) enhanced the val ue of the land with which the ruler endowed the church and compensated h is nobles, warriors, and officials. Estates cultivated by a semi-serf popu lation grew significantly. The old druzyna changed into a smaller person al guard, the armed force being composed of nobles performing military ser vice as landholders.
Boleslaus II Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boleslaus_II Boleslaus II the Bold 1058-1079, duke of Poland, supported pope Gregory VI I, but had the Bishop of Krakow St. Stanislaus put to death as a traito r. The king was forced into exile and Ladislaus Herman of Poland,1079-110 2, became duke of Poland. After him, two brothers, Zbigniew and Boleslau s, ruled jointly from 1102-1107
BOLESLAW THE WRY-MOUTHED, POLISH BOLESLAW KRZYWOUSTY, prince of Poland w ho introduced into his country the senioriate system, by which the elde st son received the major part of the royal inheritance. He also convert ed the Pomeranians to Christianity. Son of Wladyslaw I Herman, ruler of Poland, and Judith of Bohemia, Bolesl aw III and his illegitimate elder half brother, Zbigniew, each ruled a Pol ish province during their father's lifetime. Boleslaw III succeeded to h is father's princely title (no Polish ruler assumed the title of king fr om 1082 to 1296) in 1102 and spent the next several years fighting Zbigni ew for control of the country. After repelling an invasion of Silesia (110 9) by the German king Henry V, Boleslaw, who had exiled Zbigniew in 110 7, recalled him in 1112; soon, however, he accused Zbigniew of treason a nd had him blinded. Zbigniew died soon thereafter. For the next 22 years (1113-35) Boleslaw sought control of Poland's form er province of Pomerania; he conquered Eastern Pomerania in 1122 but did n ot secure Western Pomerania until he had sworn fealty to the Holy Roman em peror Lothair II in 1135. Boleslaw sent missionaries into Pomerania, conve rted the pagan tribes there to Christianity, and integrated the people in to the Polish state. He then enacted legislation to secure Pomerania and S ilesia for his eldest son and lesser provinces for his younger sons. The s enioriate system, a halfway measure between primogeniture and equal distri bution among all male heirs, was devised to satisfy all princely heirs; y et it caused dissension and eventually led to the disintegration of the st ate.
Casimir I, the Restorer (1015-1058), duke of Poland, was the son of Miesz ko II of Poland and Rixa von Lothringen. Casimir married Dobronega (Mari a) of Kiev and they had two children : Boleslaus II, King of Poland and La dislaus Herman, duke of Poland.
Mieszko II of Poland Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_II_of_Poland Mieszko II Lambert, also spelled as Miezko II, was the king of Poland (9 90 - 1034). He was the son of Boleslaw I Chrobry married Rixa von Lothring en. Their children were Casimir I of Poland, Rixa of Poland, and Gertru de of Poland. Mieszko II was very educated man for his time. He was able to read and wri te, and knew both Greek and Latin. He is known (unjustly) as Mieszko Gnus ny which means Lazy, Stagnant or Slothful. He received that name becau se of his most unfortunate ending of rule; but when he begin, he act ed as skillful and talented ruler. Before he became king in 1025, he was p robably ruling as father's governor in Krakow, probably since 1013, wh en he supposedly built many churches. He waged war against Germany (starting in 1028), quite successfully: he w as able to repel the German army, and later he even invaded Saxony. He all ied with Hungary, and Hungarians even for some time took Vienna. This w ar probably was because of family connections of Mieszko with opposition a gainst emperor Conrad II in Germany. To understand what happened later we have to tell a little about Mieszko 's family. He had older brother, Bezprym, and younger one, Otton. Accordi ng to old Slavic custom father should divide his heritage between sons; ho wever kingdoms should not be divided. So Mieszko's brothers receive nothi ng from father's legacy. What's worse, Bezprym was oldest son so many prob ably felt that he should be new king. Problem with Bezprym is that he fr om the beginning was not liked by father, as denoted by his name (Piasts u sually used names like Boleslaw, Mieszko, later also Kazimierz, Wladysla w, or Emperor's names: Otton, conrad, Heinrich: but Bezprym is common nam e, which implies that Boleslaw don't want him to became new ruler). He w as send to monastery, and he was son of unknown Hungarian wife of Bolesla w, who was expelled by him later. Both Mieszko's brothers escaped abroa d: Otton to Germany, Bezprym to Kiev Rus. Soon after both German emperor a nd great duke of Kiev, Yaroslaw the Wise, allied and made simultaneous inv asions. Facing two enemies, Germans from west and Rusins from east, Mieszko escap ed to Czech where he was probably castrated. Bezprym started his rule wi th sending crown and other king's insignia to Germany. Mieszko returned so on, but this time he was forced to pledge allegiance to German Emperor, a nd Poland was divided between him, his brothers Otton and Bezprym, and so me mysterious Thiedric (probably nephew or cousin). Mieszko was able to re unite Poland (Otton was killed by one of his own man). What happened ne xt is great puzzle. Today modern historians are guessing that Mieszko w as killed in plot organised by aristocracy (1034). After his death, peasan ts revolted. Why and when, we don't know exactly. Casimir I of Poland, son of Mieszko, was either expelled by that uprisin g, or uprising was caused by expelling by aristocracy. Uprising is call ed pagan reaction, but modern historians are arguing that it was rather ca used by economical issues (huge new taxes for the Church, militarisati on of early Polish kingdom: almost all male population server in army et c) than religious. Priests, monks knights were killed, cities, churches a nd monasteries were burned. Chaos was even greater when suddenly Czechs in vaded from the south. land became divided between local rulers, of whom o ne is known (Maslav, who ruled Masovia). Greater Poland was so devastate d, that is ceased to be core of Polish kingdom. New Polish kings moved the ir capital to Little Poland, to Krakow.
The terms Poland and Poles appear for the first time in medieval chronicl es in the late 10th century. The land that the Poles, a West Slavic peopl e, came to inhabit was covered by forests with small areas under cultivati on where clans grouped themselves into numerous tribes. The dukes (dux) we re originally the commanders of an armed retinue (druzyna) with which th ey broke the authority of the chieftains of the clans, thus transforming t he original tribal organization into a territorial unit. Two tribes, the P olanie, centring around the fortified settlement (castrum) of Gniezno, a nd the Wishlanie, who lived around Kraków, expanded to bring other trib es under their control. Exposed to some missionary activities linked wi th St. Methodius, the state of Wishlanie fell under the rule of Great Mora via--which was destroyed by the Magyar invasion of the early 10th century- -and came eventually under the rule of Mieszko I, the first ruler of the P olanie mentioned in written records. He is regarded as the founder of t he Piast dynasty, the beginnings of which are clouded in legend, though t he names of three of his predecessors are known. Creating what a contempor ary Spanish-Jewish traveler, Ibrahim ibn Ya'kub, described as the most pow erful of the existing Slav states, Mieszko accepted Roman Catholicism v ia Bohemia in 966. A missionary bishopric directly dependent on the papa cy was established in Poznan. This was the true opening of Polish histor y, for Christianity was a carrier of Western civilization with which Pola nd was henceforth associated. Facing the crucial problem of Poland's relationship to the two pilla rs of medieval Christendom, the Germanic Holy Roman Empire and the papac y, Mieszko battled the expansive tendencies of the former--a mention th at dates from 963 refers to a struggle with the German dukes--while he sou ght reliance on Rome, to which he subordinated his state in a curious docu ment, the Dagome Iudex (c. 991). Poland alternately competed and cooperat ed with neighbouring Bohemia and Hungary as well as with the principali ty of Kievan Rus. At Mieszko's death the Polish state stretched from the B altic Sea to the Carpathian Mountains, resembling in shape post-World W ar II Poland. Additional information, Mieszko I of Poland Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_I_of_Poland Mieszko I (c. 935-May 25 992), son of the semi-legendary Siemomysl, was t he first (historically known) Piast duke of Poland. In either 964 or 965 (more probably) he married Dubrawka (or Dobravy), a d aughter of Boleslaus I, duke of the Bohemians. In 978 he married Oda von H aldensleben, daughter of Dietrich (Theoderic) of Haldensleben, count of t he North March (965-985), after abducting her from the monastery of Kalbe. The early career of Mieszko was dominated by fighting with the tribes of W ieletes and Volinians south of the Baltic Sea, and their ally, the Saxon c ount Wichman. Mieszko was baptised in 966, probably under the influen ce of his Christian first wife and in order to avoid confrontation with t he Holy Roman Empire to the west; he built a church dedicated to Saint Geo rge at Gniezno. At the time of the reign of Mieszko there was no single place serving as t he capital instead he built serveral castles around his country. One the m ost important was Ostrow Lednicki (what is supported by the recent archeol ogical findings). It was a ring-fort some 460 feet in diameter. Inside h is residence, a fine stone palace, the country's first monumental architec ture. He had probably one sister of unknown name, and two brothers: one of the m, name unknown, was killed in battle around 964; and the second, named Cz cibor, died in the Battle of Cedynia in 972. Mieszko I had pledged allegiance to emperor Otto I the Great, to Gero, Cou nt of the Eastern March (ruled from 937-965), to emperor Otto II and aga in to emperor Otto III. His reign began around 962 in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska), Cujavia, Maso via and possibly in eastern Pomerania. In the 960s he probably at least pa rtially conquered western Pomerania, and in the 990's he conquered Siles ia and Little Poland (Malopolska). Much of his military activity was along the Baltic coast, in Pomerani a. He defeated Count Dietrich of the Northern March at Cedynia in 972, a nd reached the mouth of the Odra river in 976. The decisive battle, foug ht in 979, ensured Mieszko's position as count of the march. The followi ng year he celebrated his victory by dedicating the city of Gdansk at t he mouth of the Vistula River, to compete with the ports of Szczecin and W olin on the Odra. In 981 Mieszko I lost the land known only as Grody Czerwienskie to Vladim ir I, prince of Kiev. In 986 he pledged allegiance to the Emperor Otto II I, and helped him with wars with the Polabians. Shortly before his dea th he placed his state under the suzerainty of the Pope in a document usua lly called the Dagome Iudex.This Dagome Index indexes the lands of the for mer nun Oda, lists her husband as Dagome and her sons by him. In the seven teenth century a list of rulers over the Polish territories for the fir st time called them Piasts. From his first marriage he had a son, his successor Boleslaus, and a daugh ter, Swiatoslawa, later the wife (as queen Sigrid the Proud) of Eric the V ictorious, king of Sweden and then (as queen Gunhild) of king Sweyn Forkbe ard of Denmark, and mother of king Canute of Denmark and England. From his second marriage he had three sons, Mieszko, Lambert, and Swiatopo lk.
Source Enclyclopedia Britannica Wladyslaw was crowned king of Poland in 1320, but he no longer controll ed Silesia--whose dukes opted for John and which henceforth came under t he Bohemian crown--and the Teutonic Knights seized Eastern Pomerania. T he massacre the Knights perpetrated in Gdansk in 1308 entered Polish folkl ore. Thus, the reunited Polish kingdom was deprived of two of its most dev eloped provinces--Silesian Wroclaw then had some 20,000 inhabitants--and w as effectively cut off from the Baltic Sea. Cooperating closely with Hunga ry, Wladyslaw sought unsuccessfully to regain Pomerania through lawsuits a nd papal arbitration, but the Knights ignored the verdicts. A major batt le with the invading Knights fought at Plowce in 1331 was a Pyrrhic victo ry for Wladyslaw Ladislaus Herman of Poland Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladislaus_Herman_of_Polan d Ladislaus Herman (Wladislaw I Herman(n) (1043-?), duke of Poland was the s on of Casimir I of Poland, duke of Poland. He was the brother of Bolesla us II, the Bold, King of Poland. Ladislaus Herman was first married to Judith of Bohemia, then to Judi th of Swabia, the daughter of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor. Ladislaus and Judith of Swabia had a daughter named Agnes of Gandersheim
http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:1982352&id=I 19 2 Bertha was married only 1 time and that was to Edward Walsh on the 16 N ov 1942. She had children by Robert Elliott Stockton, but was never marri ed to him; Bryce Pollard being one of them. Robert Elliott Stockton was ma rried to Bertha's sister, Nellie Frances, at the time he had children wi th her.