Notes for Efenda of NOVOGROD


Novgorod
Source: Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novgorod

Novgorod is a city in North-Western Russia, which dates back to the 10th c
entury AD. It is the capital of the Novgorod Oblast. The city lies on on t he
River Volkhov just below its outflow from Lake Ilmen. Population: ca. 2
90,000.

In medieval times it was one of the greatest cities of Russia. During t he
Kievan Rus period it was the second most important center in the nati on and
the centre of the lucrative fur trade. After the sacking of Kiev a nd many of
the other Russian cities by the Mongols Novogorod's position w as greatly
enhanced and it became and independent city state of great powe r. It gained
control of a vast swath of territory in Northern Russia and w as a center of
trade. The city was far less autocratic than the Russian no rm with the Prince
elected by a council of nobles. The cities' downfall ca me about, however,
because of its inability to feed its large population w hich made it depndent
on the Vladimir-Suzdal area for grain. The main citi es in this area, Moscow
and Tver, used this dependence to control Novgoro d. Eventually Ivan II
annexed the city to Moscow. It remained powerful, ho wever, until being sacked
and its inhabitants slaughtered by Ivan the Terr ible.
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Notes for Amenirdis of NUBIA


The Ancient Kushite princess commonly known as Amenirdis I was the daughter of
Kashta and sister of Piye [1] and Shabaka. Kashta arranged to have her adopted
by the Divine Adoratrice of Amun, Shepenupet I, at Thebes as her successor
[2]; this proves that he already controlled Upper Egypt prior to the reign of
Piye, his successor.

On her death, she was buried in a tomb in the grounds of Medinet-Habu.
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Notes for Kashta of NUBIA


Kashta was a king of the Kushite Dynasty whose names translates literally as
"The Kushite". (Grimal: p.334)

While he ruled Nubia from Napata, which is 400 km north of Khartoum, the
modern capital of Sudan, he also exercised a strong degree of
influence--though not control--over Upper Egypt by managing to install his
daughter, Amenirdis I, as the God's Wife of Amun in Thebes. A stela from his
reign has been found in Elephantine (modern day Aswan)--at the local temple
dedicated to the God Khnum--which attests to his control of this region.[1] It
bears his royal prenomen: Nimaatre. Egyptologists today believe that either he
or more likely Piye was the Year 12 Nubian king mentioned in a well-known
inscription at Wadi Gasus which associates the Adopted God's Adoratice of
Amun, Amenirdis, Kashta's daughter together with Year 19 of the serving God's
Wife of Amun, Shepenupet I, daughter of Osorkon III. Kashta's wife was Queen
Pebatma.

The pyramids of el-Kurru contain the tombs of Kashta and his son Piye
(Piankhi), together with Piye's successors Shabaka, Shebitku and Tanwetamani.
Kashta's reign length is unknown.

Some sources credit Kashta as the founder of the 25th dynasty in Upper Egypt
since he was the first Kushite king to expand his kingdom's influence into
part of Egypt
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Notes for Piye of NUBIA


Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Py(ankh)i (d. 721 BC) was a Kushite
king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt from the
city of Napata, located deep in Nubia, Sudan. His predecessor, Kashta, almost
certainly exercised a strong degree of influence over Thebes prior to Piye's
accession because Kashta managed to have his daughter, Amenirdis I, adopted as
the Heiress to the serving God's Wife of Amun, Shepenupet I, before the end of
his reign. A Year 19 date carved at Wadi Gasus associates Shepenupet I
(daughter of Osorkon III) with Year 12 of her Adopted Adoratice, Amenirdis I.
This inscription has been interpreted by Egyptologists to mean that Year 12 of
Piye is equivalent to Year 19 of one of Osorkon III's two sons, likely Takelot
III based on recent archaeological discoveries.

As the next ruler of Nubia, Piye took advantage of the squabbling of Egypt's
rulers by expanding Nubia's power beyond Thebes into central Egypt. In
reaction against the growing Kushite influence in Upper Egypt, Tefnakht of
Sais formed a coalition between the local kings of the Delta Region and
enticed Piye's nominal ally—king Nimlot of Hermopolis—to defect to his side.
Tefnakht then sent his coalition army south and besieged Herakleopolis where
its king Peftjaubast and the local Nubian commanders appealed to Piye for
help. Piye reacted quickly to this crisis in his Year 20 by assembling an army
to invade Middle and Lower Egypt and visited Thebes in time for the great Opet
Festival which proves he effectively controlled Upper Egypt by this time. His
military feats are chronicled in the Victory stela at Gebel Barkal.

Piye then marched north and achieved complete victory at Herakleopolis in
2000, conquering the cities of Hermopolis and Memphis among others, and
received the submission of the kings of the Nile Delta including Iuput II of
Leontopolis, Osorkon IV of Tanis and his former ally Nimlot at Hermopolis.
Hermopolis fell to the Nubian king after a siege lasting five months. Tefnakht
took refuge in an island in the Delta and formally conceded defeat in a letter
to the Nubian king but refused to personally pay homage to the Kushite ruler.
Satisfied with his triumph, Piye proceeded to sail south to Thebes and
returned to his homeland in Nubia never to return to Egypt. Despite Piye's
successful campaign into the Delta, his authority only extended northward from
Thebes up to the western desert oases and Herakleopolis where Peftjaubastet
ruled as a Nubian vassal king. The local kings of Lower Egypt especially
Tefnakht were essentially free to do what they wanted without Piye's
oversight. It was Shabaka, Piye's successor, who later rectified this
unsatisfactory situation by attacking Sais and defeating Tefnakht's successor
Bakenranef at Sais, in his second [[regnal year].

Piye adopted two throne names: Usimare and Sneferre during his reign and was
much more passionate (in common with many kings of Nubia) about the worship of
the god Amun. He revitalised the moribund Great Temple of Amun at Gebel
Barkal, first built under Thutmose III of the New Kingdom by employing
numerous sculptors and stone masons from Egypt to renew the temple. He was
once thought to have also used the throne name 'Menkheperre' ("the
Manifestation of Ra abides") but this prenomen has now been recognised as
belonging to a local Theban king named Ini instead who was a contemporary of
Piye. Piye's Highest known Date was long thought to be the Year 24 III Akhet
day 10 date mentioned in the "Smaller Dakhla Stela" (Ashmoleum Museum No.1894)
from his reign. This sandstone stela measures 81.5 cm by 39.5 cm and was
discovered from the Sutekh temple at Mut al-Kharib in the Western Desert Oasis
town of Dakhla, according to a JEA 54(1968) article by Jac Janssen. However,
in early 2006, the Tomb of the Southern Vizier Padiamonet, son of Pamiu, was
discovered in the third Upper Terrace of Queen Hatshepsut's mortuary Temple at
Deir El-Bahari by the Polish Mission for the Centre of Mediterranean
Archaeology. It was carved approximately 8 metres into the rock face of the
temple cliff in an area where several other Third Intermediate Period and Late
Period burials have also been discovered. According to this article in the
Polish news site Nauka w Polsce (Science & Scholarship in Poland),
Padiamonet's tomb contains a burial inscription which is dated to Year 27 of
Piye.[1] Dr. Zbigniew Szafranski, Director of the Polish Mission, states
regarding the find:

“ The tomb had been plundered. We don't know whether in antiquity or in more
recent times; however we have found fragments of the mummy. On the basis of
the inscriptions found in the tomb we suspect that buried there was the vizier
Padiamonet who died in the 27th Year of the rule of the Pharaoh Piankhi (Piye)
from the 25th Dynasty.[2] ” 

Szafranski further notes that the Mummy cartonnage (a cover in which the mummy
is placed) found in Padiamonet's burial chamber featured "beautiful, ornate,
colourful pictures [in which] you can read in hieroglyphs the name of the
Vizier. It is also visible on the fragments of the [mummy] bandages."[3]

The Great Temple at Gebel Barkal contains carved relief scenes depicting Piye
celebrating a Heb Sed Festival but there is some doubt among scholars as to
whether it portrayed a genuine Sed Feast or was merely Anticipatory. Under the
latter scenario, Piye would have planned to hold a Jubilee Festival in this
Temple in his 30th Year--hence his recruitment of Egypt's Artisans to decorate
it--but died before this event took place. While Piye's precise reign length
is still unknown, this new find and his subsequently higher Year 27 date
affirms the traditional view that Piye lived into his Year 30 and celebrated
his Jubilee that year. Kenneth Kitchen in his book, The Third Intermediate
Period in Egypt, has suggested a reign of 31 years for Piye based on the Year
7 donation stela of a certain Shepsesre Tefnakht whom he viewed as Piye's
opponent. However, this stela is now believed to refer instead to a second
later Saite king called Tefnakht II from the late Nubian era because it is
almost similar in style and format to a newly revealed donation stela--from a
private collection--which is dated to Year 2 of Necho I's reign. (This new
document was analysed by Olivier Perdu in CRAIBL 2002) Hence, no reliance can
be placed on the Year 8 stela of Shepsesre Tefnakht to determine Piye's reign
length. However, Dr Szafranski's recent discovery suggests that the Gebel
Barkal Heb Sed scenes are genuine and supports the conventional view that Piye
enjoyed a reign of roughly three full decades.

Piye was buried in a pyramid at el-Kurru near Gebel Barkal, a site that would
come to be occupied by the tombs of several later members of the dynasty.

Bibliography
Roberto B. Gozzoli: The Writing of History in Ancient Egypt during the First
Millennium BC (ca. 1070-180 BC), Trends and Perspectives, London 2006, S.
54-67 ISBN 0-9550256-3-X 
Jac Janssen, "The Smaller Dakhla Stele," JEA 54(1968) pp.165-171 
Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC). 3rd ed.
(1996) Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd. 
Olivier Perdu, "La Chefferie de Sébennytos de Piankhy à Psammétique Ier", RdE
55 (2004), pp.95-111 
Szymon Lucyk, "Polscy archeolodzy odkryli grób wezyra w swiatyni Hatszepsut"
or 'Polish Archaeologists have discovered the tomb of a Vizier in Hatshepsut's
temple' in Nauka w Polsce, February 22, 2006 [2] 
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Notes for Shabaka of NUBIA


Shabaka (or Shabaka Neferkare, 'Beautiful is the Soul of Re') was a Kushite
pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, between (721 BC – 707/706 BC).
He succeeded his brother Piye on the throne. Shabaka's reign was initially
dated from 716 BC to 702 BC by Kenneth Kitchen. However, new evidence
indicates that Shabaka died around 707 or 706 BC because Sargon II (722-705
BC) of Assyria states in an official inscription at Tang-i Var (in Northwest
Iran)--which is datable to 706 BC--that it was Shebitku, Shabaka's successor,
who extradited Iamanni of Ashdod to him as king of Egypt.[2] This view has
been accepted by many Egyptologists today such as Aidan Dodson,[3] Rolf
Krauss, David Aston, and Karl Jansen-Winkeln among others because there is no
concrete evidence for coregencies or internal political/regional divisions in
the Nubian kingdom during the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. All contemporary records
suggest that the Nubian Pharaohs ruled Egypt with only a single king on the
throne, while Taharqa states explicitly on one of his Kawa stelas that he
assumed power only after the death of his uncle, Shebitku.

Shabaka's reign is significant because he consolidated the Nubian Kingdom's
control over all of Egypt from Nubia down to the Delta region. It also saw an
enormous amount of building work undertaken throughout Egypt, especially at
the city of Thebes. Shabaka succeeded in preserving Egypt's independence from
outside foreign powers especially the Assyrian empire under Sargon II. The
most famous relic from Shabaka's reign is the Shabaka stone which records
several Old Kingdom documents that the king ordered preserved.[4] Despite
being relative newcomers to Egypt, Shabaka and his family were immensely
interested in Egypt's past and the art of the period reflects their tastes
which harked back to earlier periods. Shabaka would grant refuge to king
Iamanni of Ashdod after the latter fled to Egypt following the brutal
suppression of his revolt by Assyria in 712 BC.

Shabaka is assumed to have died in his 15th regnal year based on BM cube
statue 24429, which is dated to Year 15, II Shemu day 11 of Shabaka's
reign.[5] He was buried in a pyramid at el-Kurru and was succeeded by his
nephew Shebitku, Piye's son, following the Kushite tradition of succession
from brother to brother, to son of the first brother.
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Notes for Taharqa of NUBIA


Taharqa was king of Egypt, and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty
of Egypt. His reign can be dated from 690 BC to 664 BC. He was the son of
Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered Egypt, and the younger
brother and successor of Shebitku.[2]

Kenneth Kitchen's book, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, provides a
wealth of information about Taharqa and confirms that his reign lasted a
minimum of 26 Years.[3] This is based on the evidence from Serapeum stela Cat.
192 "which records that an Apis bull who was born and installed (4th month of
Peret, day 9) in Year 26 of Taharqa died in Year 20 of Psammetichus I (4th
month of Shomu, day 20) having lived 21 years. This would give Taharqa a reign
of 26 years and a fraction, in 690-664 B.C."[4] Taharqa was the brother of
Shebitku or Sebaq-tawy, the previous king of Egypt. Taharqa explicitly states
in Kawa Stela V, line 15 that he succeeded Shebitku with this statement: "I
received the Crown in Memphis after the Falcon (ie: Shebitku) flew to
heaven."[5]

Scholars have identified him with Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, who waged war
against Sennacherib during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah (2 Kings 19:9;
Isaiah 37:9) and drove him from his intention of destroying Jerusalem and
deporting its inhabitants—a critical action that, according to Henry T. Aubin,
has shaped the Western world. For at this time, the Bible had not yet been
written, nor had the concept of YWEH been fully defined.[6] The events in the
Biblical account are believed to have taken place in 701 BC, whereas Taharqa
came to the throne some ten years later. A number of explanations have been
proposed: one being that the title of king in the Biblical text refers to his
future royal title, when at the time of this account he was likely only a
military commander.
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Notes for Chilperic I of NUESTRIA


Chilperic I was King of Neustria (Soissons) 561-584. "History of the Frank s,"
Gregory of Tours (Ernest Brehaut, translator)(NY: W.W.Norton, 1969 ), p. 277,
gives a chart of Clothaire I wives and children, and states th at Chilperic I
is son of his 4th wife, Aregunda (sister of his 3rd wife, I ngunda). An
extended account of Chilperic is given by Fr. Funck-Brenta no in "A History of
Gaul" (NY: Barnes & Noble, 1993, pp. 259-267).

Brentano, "A History of Gaul", p. 266

Additional Information:
Chlothacharius I, gracia Dei Francorum rex also went by the name of Clotai re
I "le Vieux" des Francs French. Chlothacharius I, gracia Dei Francor um rex
also went by the name of Clothar I "the Old" of the Franks le Vie ux = the
Old. Also called Lothair. He was born between 501 and 502.

He inherited the kingdom of Soissons from his father in 511. King of Fran ks
in Soissons, Neustria, Frankish Kingdoms, between 27 November 511 and 5 58. He
acquired Orléans from his brother recently killed in battle again st the
Burgundians on 25 June 524. King of Franks in Orléans, Frankish Kin gdoms,
between 25 June 524 and 558.5 He defeated the Thuringians and to ok Radegund
back to Francia as booty where he married her circa 531. He ki lled, with his
brother Childebert, his nephews, Gunthar and Theodebald, so ns of Chlodomer,
in 531.

He and Theudericus I, King of Franks, in Austrasia were the merovingians w ho
subjugated the Thuringians and defeating their King, Hermanfrid, in 53 1.  He
and Childebertus I, rex Francorum, vir inluster engaged in their o wn civil
war, bringing into it their nephew Theodebert before 545 in the f orest of
Brotonne, Normandy, France. A prayer by their mother, St. Chlothi ld, at the
tomb of St. Martin, and besought with tears all night not to pe rmit another
fratricide. "Suddenly a frightful tempest arose and dispers ed the two armies
(that of Chlotaire's pursued by Childebert and Theodeber t's) which were about
to engage in a hand-to-hand struggle; thus, says t he chronicler, did the
saint answer the prayers of the afflicted mother." 12 He inherited the kingdom
of Austrasia from his childless grandnephew, T héobald, in 553. King of Franks
in Austrasia, Frankish Kingdoms, between 5 53 and 558.

He acquired the kingdoms of Burgundy and Paris from his brother Childebe rt in
558. He consolidated his father's former dominion, by acquiring t he lands of
his brothers and grandnephew, to become the second King of a ll Franks in 558.
King of Franks in Burgundy, Frankish Kingdoms, betwe en 23 December 558 and
561. King of Franks in Paris, Frankish Kingdoms, be tween 23 December 558 and
561. 2nd King of all Franks in Frankish Kingdom s, between 558 and 561. He
defeated Conomor of Domnonée (alias Cunomoru s) in battle in 560. He died on
10 November 561 in Compiégne.He succeeded his father to the kingdom of
Soissons in 561. He shared wi th his three half brothers (sons of Ingund,
Aregund's sister) in the parti tion that followed their father's death, he
received the poorest region, t he kingdom of Soissons, in 561. King of Franks
in Soissons, Frankish Kingd oms, between 561 and 567. He succeeded his brother
to the kingdom of Pari s, thus creating, more or less, the future kingdom of
Neustria in 567. Ki ng of Franks in Neustria, Frankish Kingdoms, between 567
and 584. Ki ng of Franks in Paris, Frankish Kingdoms, between 567 and 584.

He murdered his wife Galswintha in order to marry her maid, Fredegund, a nd
his brother, husband of Galswintha's sister, was obliged to seek reveng e, and
a terrible civil war broke out between the brothers in 568. He marr ied
Fredegund d' Ardennes, daughter of Brunulphe I, comte d' Ardennes a nd
Crotechilde the Ostrogoth, after 568; His 3rd marriage. She was the ma id of
Chilperic's 1st wife, Galswintha, Brunhild's sister. He was not ed by Gregory
of Tours, a contemporary, as "the Nero and the Herod of h is age.". He died
between September 584 and October 584 in Chelles, Franc e. He fell victim to
an unknown assassin. Some suggest that his wife, Fred egund, had a hand in the
assassination because he had discovered she was h aving an affair.
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Notes for Hildebrante of NUESTRIA


Some references list her as Ligard Adela or just Adela
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Notes for Joerge NUNEZ


Unsure if first name is correct.
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Notes for Gonzalo NUNOZ


Ganzalo flourished in Asturias 1033-53.
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Notes for John NUTTING


Sources:  Parkhurst, Peter George, Research and Family Records, Publicatio n:
1997
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Notes for Samuel O'BANNON


[Jernigan.ged.FTW]

Died in Childhood
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Notes for Donnchad O'BRIEN


son of Brian Bórú and Gormflaith, King of Munster in 1023.  Donnchad we nt on a
pilgrimage to Rome in 1064 and died the same year.
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Notes for Cellach macCinaeda O'CHEINNSELAIG


was slain by the Ossorians in 945, at Athcliath (Dublin)2nd son of Cenet h; was
slain by the Ossorians in 945, at Athcliath (Dublin).
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Notes for Cinaed macCairpre O'CHEINNSELAIG


Slain by the Danes of Loch Carmen; was King of Leinster for 13years

Irish History During Period

In the period between c. 870 and 914, the Vikings appear to have direct ed
their activities in Britain and there was a relative peace in Irelan d. The
following 25 years beginning in 914 AD were perhaps a highpoi nt of Viking
agression. More permanent Viking settlement began in this per iod. Initially
the Irish were unable to counter these threats, and Niall G lundub, the Cenel
nEogain king of Tara, was killed in battle at Dubl in in 919. Yet the threat
gradually receded by 940's and the Viking rule rs were drawn into the Irish
political order, so that their military pow er usually served Irish political
ends.

By the middle of the tenth century Norse and Danish Viking coastal settlem
ents and trading ports had been established at Dublin, Wexford, Waterfor d,
Cork and Limerick. These Viking trading towns and their populations we re
gradually absorbed into the social and political system that surround ed them.
The annals frequently make reference to Irish intermarriages a nd military
alliances with the Vikings, as echoed in the famous Batt le of Clontarf in
1014 AD with Viking constituents on both sides. By the l ate 10th century the
'Foreigners' in Dublin [and elsewhere] were not se en as an enemy to be driven
back into the sea but as a potential sour ce of wealth and tribute for the
Irish chieftains. Claimants to the High K ingship of Ireland soon came to
understand that their power would oft en be gauged by their ability to control
the important port of Dublin.

Although the early Vikings, or 'Ostmen', were well-known for their rai ds on
the Irish and the Irish Church, their contributions to Ireland we re to have a
greater positive impact, This included the establishment of I reland's first
towns, the expansion of its seafaring trade, and the influe nce on its art.

Within the Irish political scene the power control of the kings of Tara (I
reland) alternated between the Northern and Southern Ui Niaill (Neill) cla ns.
In the 9th century Maelsechnaill (I) of Clann Cholmain began to make f orays
into Munster attempting to strengthen the Southern Ui Niaill influen ce,
creating enemies rather than allies of the Munstermen. This policy l ed to a
disastrous reaction from Munster by the end of the 10th century, v iz. Brian
Borumha.

Excerpts from the Annals

860 AD - Maelseachlainn [of the Southern Ui Niaill], son of Maelruanaid h, son
of Donnchadh, Monarch of Ireland, died on the thirteenth day of Nov ember
precisely, on Tuesday, after he had been sixteen years in the sovere ignty. He
was succeeded by Aedh Finnliath [of the Northern Ui Niaill], s on of Niall
Caille, in sovereignty over Ireland.

876 AD - After Aedh Finnliath, the son of Niall Caille, had been sixteen y
ears in the sovereignty of Ireland, he died at Druim Inesclainn, in the te
rritory of Conaille, on the 20th day of November. He was succeeded by Fla nn
Sinna [of the Southern Ui Niaill], the son of Maelsechlainn, in soverei gnty
over Ireland. He was still king in 902.

916 AD - After Flann Sionna had been forty years in the sovereignty of Ire
land he was succeeded by Niall Glundubh ("Black Knee"), son of Aedh Finnli
ath.

919 AD - After Niall Glundubh, son of Aedh Finnliath had been three yea rs in
the sovereignty of Ireland he was succeeded by Donnchadh, son of Fla nn Sinna
of the Southern Ui Neill. Niall was slain fighting the Danes at t he Battle of
Dublin in 919.

944 - After Donnchadh had been twenty five years in the sovereignty of Ire
land he was succeeded by Congalach Cnogba, son of Máel Mithig.

956 - After Congalach had been twelve years in the sovereignty of Irela nd he
was succeeded by Domhnall Ardmacha Ua Niall, son of Muircheartach " na
G-Cochaill Criceann" Ua Niall.
Slain by the Danes of Loch Carmen; was King of Leinster for 13 years.
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Notes for Daughter of Domnall O'CHEINNSELAIG


Questionable parentage
Information taken from O'Hart's "Irish Pedigrees" and Rev. P.L.O'Toole's "
History of the Clan O'Toole

If she was an Ossorian, then likely she was not the daughter of Domnall a nd
may have been a peasant girl.
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Notes for Domnall macCellaig O'CHEINNSELAIG


King of Leinster for 9 years; slain by the Ossorians in 974.

Kinsella Genealogy and Brian Tompsett of Hull University differ great ly on
spelling of names in this line. However, Tompsett appears to be clos er to the
original Gaelic pronounciations so I have altered the data to re flect his
spellings where applicable.

Irish History During Period

The Eoghnacht were pushed aside as kings of Munster in the mid-tenth centu ry
by the Dál gCais of North Munster. This was helped by the attacks of t he Ui
Neill on the Eoghanact and by the dynastic wars which were soon to k eep the
Ui Neill busy. On his death notice in 951 Cennetig, king of the D al Cais, is
called king of North Munster. His son Brian Boruma, or Brian B oru (ancestor
of the O'Briens), who succeeded in 976, was to make himse lf king of Ireland
and rival of the powerful Ui Neill.

Domnall ua Neill, overking of the Ui Neill (956-980) and king also of t he
northern Ui Neill attempted to govern the southern Ui Neill directly. H is
sucessor was Mael Sechnaill II (of the southern Ui Neill), and the la st of
the 'traditional' Ui Neill kings of Tara. Brian Boru's rise to pow er was
swift, beginning with the Ostmen (Vikings) of Limerick, King Imar a nd his
sons, who assassinated Brian's brother. In three years time both Li merick and
Munster were in his hands. He came into conflict with the Ui Ne ill when he
tried to conquer Ossory (Osraighe) in the year 980. Allied wi th the Ostmen of
Waterford, Brian pushed his armies into Connacht and Lein ster. Mael
Sechnaill's attempts to contain Brian were not successful, a nd in 997 Brian
and Mael Sechnaill met at Clonfert and divided Ireland bet ween them.

Late in 999 Brian brought the king of Dublin, Sitric Silkenbeard, into sub
mission. By 1011 he dominated much of Ireland. He had shattered the Ui Nei ll
monopoly and had made the kingship of Ireland a prize to be fought fo r. About
1012, relations between Brian and Leinster became strained a nd he was killed
at the battle of Clontarf on Good Friday 1014. Althou gh he won the battle,
Brian was stopped short just when he seemed to be ab out to make the kingship
of Ireland a reality, and the possession of his d ynasty. The death of Brian
and the subsequent weakness of his dynasty allo wed Mael Sechnaill II to be
'high-king' of Ireland until his death in 1022 .

Beginning in 1042 the last six kings of Ireland appear to have alternat ed
between provincial candidates, first from Leinster, then Aileach, Munst er,
Connacht, Tír Conaill, and ending with Ruaidrí O'Connor of Connac ht in 1186.

Source: "ABSTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS"
Compiled in the years 1632-1636 at the convent of Donegal, by the chief
author, Michael O'Clery, a monk of the order of St. Francis, after a
search of fifteen years throughout the country for the most important of
the Irish documents.

Note: These genealogies were compiled, and edited by Pat Traynor from Iri sh
Pedigrees, by John O'Hart, pub. 1892, vol. 1 of 2. Readers are caution ed to
check the original text, as several pedigrees had to be search ed in making a
line from Milesius to the 10th century in most cases.Dona l: 2nd son of
Ceallach; was King of Leinster for 9 years; slain by the Oss orians in 974.
Return to Domnall macCellaig O'CHEINNSELAIG










































Notes for Echtighern macCinaeda O'CHEINNSELAIG


King of Leinster for 9 years; slain in 951 by the sons of Ceallach, his br
other.
Return to Echtighern macCinaeda O'CHEINNSELAIG










































Notes for Eoghan Caech macNath`i O'CHEINNSELAIG


Irish History During Period

Ireland's 'golden age' began in the sixth century and lasted well into t he
ninth century. Ireland was known as an 'Island of Saints and Scholar s' whose
wandering missionaries and teachers were a beacon for the re st of Europe when
the continental countries were said to languish in the ir 'Dark Ages'. Did the
Irish carry the torch of learning to Europe duri ng these centuries? The
documentary evidence places the scholars of Iri sh monastic schools at an
academic pinnacle, and there seems to be litt le doubt of the contributions
made by the scribes and monks in preservi ng the West's written heritage. The
flowering of literature and learni ng in early Ireland is firmly linked with
the rise of Christian monastic s chools which came into prominence in the
latter half of the sixth centur y. From these monastic centers Irish
missionaries were to establish religi ous centers of learning in other parts
of Europe.

Who were some of the early missionaries? Colum Cille (Columba) went to Ion a,
off the coast of Scotland, around 563 to convert the Picts. Columban us went
to Gaul (France) around 591, and later into other parts of Europ e, to
establish monastic schools. Fursa went to East Anglia (England) a nd Gaul
around 633 to establish Irish foundations of learning. Aidan beca me the first
bishop of Lindisfarne in Northumbria about 635.

Political Influence in Ireland

By the beginning of the 7th century the dominant power in Ulster were t he Dal
Fiatach, over their rivals the Cruithin, i.e. the Dal nAraide of so uth Co.
Antrim and the Ui Eachach Cobo of west Co. Down. At the same ti me the
Northern Ui Neill began to extend their territory further into C o. Derry and
Tyrone.

The Southern Ui Neill, represented in particular by Clann Cholmain and Si ll
nAedo Slaine, established dominance in northern Leinster province wi th their
new territories on the plains of Meath/Westmeath (Midhe and Brega ). They
eclipse the power of (probably) the Dal Messin Corb, Ui Failge a nd Ui
Enechglaiss of Leinster.

In Connacht, the Ui Briuin and Ui Fiachrach become dominant. By the 630s t he
Ui Dunlainge emerged as the most powerful in northern Leinster, whose b orders
have been taken further south by the Southern Ui Neill. The Ui Dunl ainge
began to eclipse the former power held by the Dal Messin Corb, repre sented
principally by the Ui Garrchon. In southern Leinster the Ui Cennsel aig began
their dominance, while the Ui Bairrche were strong in the easte rn part of the
province.

In Munster the Eoghanachta begin their push into Co. Cork and eastern C o.
Kerry pushing aside the wide population groups of the Mairtine and Erai nn.

Excerpts from the Annals

551 AD - The death of Eochaidh, son of Connlo, King of Ulidia, from whom a re
the Ui Eathach Uladh.---Tighernach.

552 AD - The killing of Colman Mor, son of Diarmaid, in his chariot, by Du
bhshlat Ua Treana, one of the Cruithni.

554 AD - Curnan, son of Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirmcharna, i. e. the s on of
the King of Connaught, was put to death by Diarmaid, son of Cearbhal l, in
violation of the guarantee and protection of Colum Cille, having be en
forcibly torn from his hands, which was the cause of the battle of C ul
Dreimhne.

555 AD - The battle of Cul Dreimhne was gained against Diarmaid, son of Ce
arbhall, by Fearghus and Domhnall, the two sons of Muircheartach, son of E
arca; by Ainmire, son of Sedna; and by Ainnidh, son of Duach; and by Aed h,
son of Eochaidh Tirmcharna, King of Connaught. It was in revenge of t he
killing of Curnan, son of Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirmcharna, while und er the
protection of Colum Cille, the Clanna Neill of the North and the Co nnaughtmen
gave this battle of Cul Dreimhne to King Diarmaid.

556 AD - The battle of Cuil Uinnsenn, in Teathbha, was fought against Diar
maid, by Aedh, son of Breanainn, chief of Teathbha; and Diarmaid was rout ed
from the field of battle.

557 AD - The battle of Moin Doire Lothair was gained over the Cruithnig h, by
the Ui Neill of the North, i. e. by the Cinel Conaill and Cinel Eogh ain,
wherein fell seven chieftains of the Cruithnigh, together with Aedh B reac;
and it was on this occasion that the Lee and Carn Eolairg were forfe ited to
the Clanna Neill of the North.

558 AD - After Diarmaid, the son of Fearghus Cerrbheoil, had been twenty y
ears in sovereignty over Ireland, he was slain by Aedh Dubh, son of Suibhn e,
King of Dal Araidhe, at Rath Beag, in Magh Line. His head was broug ht to
Cluain Mic Nois, and interred there, and his body was interred at Co nnor.

559 AD - The first year of the two sons of Muircheartach, son of Muireadha ch,
in the kingdom of Ireland, i.e. Domhnall and Fearghus.

560 AD - Daimhin Damhairgitr, i.e. Cairbre, died. From him are the Airghia
lla.

561 AD - After Domhnall and Fearghus, the two sons of Muircheartach, s on of
Muireadhach, son of Eoghan, son of Niall, had been three years in t he
sovereignty of Ireland, they both died.

562 AD - The first year of Eochaidh, son of Domhnall, son of Muircheartac h,
and of Baedan, son of Muircheartach, son of Muireadhach, in the soverei gnty
of Ireland.

563 - After Eochaidh and Baedan had been two years in the sovereignty of I
reland, they were slain by Cronan, chief of Cianachta Glinne Gemhin.

564 AD - The first year of Ainmire, son of Sedna, son of Fearghus Ceannfho da,
in the sovereignty of Ireland.

565 AD - Deman, son of Cairell, King of Ulidia, son of Muireadhach Muindea rg,
was killed by the shepherds of Boirenn. Also in this year A sea fle et was
brought by Colman Beg, son of Diarmaid, son of Fearghus Cerrbheoi l, and by
Conall, son of Comhgall, chief of Dal Riada, to Sol and Ile, a nd they carried
off many spoils from them.

566 AD - After Ainmire, son of Sedna, was three years in the sovereign ty of
Ireland, he was slain by Fearghus, son of Nellin.

567 AD - After Baedan, son of Ninnidh, son of Fearghus Ceannfhoda, had be en
one year in the sovereignty of Ireland, he was slain at Leim An Eic h, in a
battle, by the two Comains; i.e. Comain, son of Colman Beg, s on of Cearbhall,
and Comain, son of Libren, son of Illadhan, son of Cearbh all. It was at the
instance of Colman Beg they perpetrated this deed.

568 AD - The first year of Aedh, son of Ainmire, over Ireland.

571 AD - The battle of Tola, by Fiachna, son of Baedan, son of Cairell, ag
ainst the people of Osraighe and Eile; and they were defeated. Tola is t he
name of a plain situated between Cluain Fearta Molua and Saighir. Al so in
this year was the battle of Feimhin, by Cairbre, son of Creamhthan n, King of
Munster, against Colman Beg, son of Diarmaid; and Colman was de feated.

572 AD - The battle of Doete, which is called Bealach Feadha, by Aedh, s on of
Ainmire, against the men of Meath, where fell Colman Beg, son of Dia rmaid.

574 AD - The killing of Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirmcharna, by the Ui Briuin .

576 AD - Colman, son of Cairbre, King of Leinster, died at Sliabh Mairge.

579 AD - The battle of Druim Mic Earca, was gained by Aedh, son of Ainmir e,
over the Cinel Eogain, where was slain Colga, son of Domhnall, son of M
uircheartach, son of Muireadhach.

580 AD - Fearghus Scannal, King of Munster, was slain.

581 AD - Aedh, son of Suibhne, chief of Maenmagh, died.

582 AD - Fearadhach, son of Duach, Lord of Osraighe, was slain by his o wn
people.

585 - Breanainn, son of Brian, chief of Teathbha Teffia, died. It was he t hat
had, some time before, granted Dearmhagh to God and to Colum Cille. Al so in
this year Baetan, son of Cairell, King of Ulidia, died.

586 AD - Feidhlimidh, son of Tighernach, King of Munster, died. Also in th is
year the battle of Magh Ochtair was gained by Bran Dubh, son of Eochaid h,
over the Ui Neill, at the hill over Cluain Conaire, to the south.

590 AD - The battle of Eadan Mor was gained by Fiachna, son of Baedan, s on of
Cairell, son of Muireadhach Muindearg, over Gerthidhe, son of Rona n, Lord of
Cianachta.

591 AD - Aedh Cerr, son of Colman, son of Cairbre, King of Leinster, died.

592 AD - Aedh Dubh, son of Suibhne, King of Ulidia, was slain by Fiachn a, son
of Baedan. It was by this Aedh Dubh Diarmaid Mac Cearbhaill had be en slain.

594 AD - After Aedh, son of Ainmire, son of Sedna, had been twenty seven y
ears in the sovereignty of Ireland, he was slain by Bran Dubh, son of Eoch
aidh, in the battle of Dun Bolg, in Leinster, after Aedh had gone to exa ct
the Borumha, and to avenge his son Comusgach upon them. Some nobles fe ll in
this battle of Bealach Duin Bolg, together with Beg, son of Cuanac h, Lord of
Oirghialla.

595 AD - The first year of both Aedh Slaine, son of the son of Diarmaid, s on
of Fearghus Cerrbheoil; and of Colman Rimidh, in the sovereignty of Ire land.

596 AD - Suibhne, son of Colman Beg, Lord of Meath, was slain by Aedh Slai ne,
at Bridamh.

597 AD - The battle of Sleamhain, in Meath, was fought by Colman Rimidh ag
ainst Conall Cu, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire; and Conall was defeated. Al so
in this year Brenainn, son of Cairbre, son of Fechine, Lord of Ui Main e,
died. Also in this year Uata, son of Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirmcharn a, King
of Connaught, died.

598 AD - The battle of Eachros, in Muirisc, by Colman, chief of Cinel Cair
bre, against Maelcothaigh, chief of Cinel Fiachrach, of Muirisc; and the b
attle was gained over Maelcothaigh.

600 AD - After Aedh Slaine, son of Diarmaid, and Colman Rimidh, son of Bae
dan, son of Muircheartach, son of Muireadhach, son of Eoghan, son of Nial l,
had been six years in the sovereignty of Ireland, Colman Rimidh was sla in by
Lochan Dilmana, and Aedh Slaine was slain by Conall Guithbhinn, s on of
Suibhne, son of Colman Mor, or Beg, son of Diarmaid, son of Cearthal l, at
Loch Semhedidhe. Aedh Gustan, the foster brother of Conall, and Baet hghal
Bile, wounded him.
Also in this year Conall, son of Suibhne, slew Aedh Roin, chief of Ui Fail
ghe, at Faithche Mic Mencnain, and Aedh Buidhe, chief of Ui Maine, on t he
same day on which Aedh Slaine was slain by him. Also in this year Cui G an
Mathair, King of Munster, died - and Conall Cu, son of Aedh, son of Ain mire,
died.

601 AD - The first year of Aedh Uairidhnach, son of Domhnall Ilchealgac h, son
of Muircheartach, son of Muireadhach, son of Eoghan, in the soverei gnty of
Ireland.
Also in this year The battle of Slaibhre was gained by the Ui Neill over B ran
Dubh, son Eochaidh, King of Leinster; and Bran Dubh, i.e. son of Eocha idh,
was killed by the Airchinneach of Senboithe Sine, and his own trib e. Also in
this year Colman, son of Fearadhach, chief of Osraighe Ossor y, died.

605 AD - Seachnasach, son of Garbhan, chief of Cinel Boghaine, was sla in by
Domhnall, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire. Also, Conall of the Red Dar t, son of
Daimhin, was killed by the Ui Meith Macha.

606 AD - Aedh, son of Colgan, chief of Oirghialla and of all the Airthear a,
died on his pilgrimage, at Cluain Mic Nois (Clonmacnoise). Also, Maeldu in,
son of Ailen, chief of Mughdorn Maighean, died.

607 - After Aedh Uairidhnach had been seven years in the sovereignty of Ir
eland, he died at Ath Da Fearta. He was succeeded by Maelcobha, son of Aed h,
son of Ainmire, in the sovereignty of Ireland.

610 AD - After Maelcobha, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, had been three yea rs
in the sovereignty of Ireland, he was slain by Suibhne Meann, in the ba ttle
of Sliabh Toadh. He was succeeded by Suibhne Meann, son of Fiachna, s on of
Fearadhach, in sovereignty over Ireland.
Also in this year Ronan, son of Colman, King of Leinster, died - and Gorma n,
one of the Mughdhorna, from whom are the Mac Cuinns, and who was a ye ar
living on the water of Tibraid Fingin, on his pilgrimage at Cluain M ic Nois,
died.

613 AD - Fearghus, son of Colman Mor, Prince of Meath, was slain by Anfart ach
Ua Meascain, of Muintir Blaitine. In the following year Aedh Beanna n, King of
West Munster, died.

616 AD - Aenghus, son of Colman Mor, chief of the Southern Ui Neill, died.

620 AD - Ronan, son of Tuathal, Lord of the Airtheara, died. And Cathal, s on
of Aedh, King of Munster, died.

622 AD - The battle of Carn Fearadhaigh was gained by Failbhe Flann over t he
Connaughtmen, wherein were slain Conall, chief of Ui Maine, Maeldubh, M
aelduin, Maelruain, Maelcalgaigh, and Maelbreasail, and other nobles and p
lebeians besides them; and Guaire Aidhne was routed from the battle field.
Also... The battle of Lethed Midinn, at Drung, was fought by Fiachna, s on of
Deman, Lord of Dal Fiatach, against Fiachna, son of Baedan, Ki ng of Ulidia.
The battle was gained over Fiachna, son of Baedan, and he fe ll therein.

623 AD - After Suibhne Meann had been thirteen years in the sovereign ty of
Ireland, he was slain at Traigh Brena, by Congal Claen. He was succe eded by
Domhnall, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, in the sovereignty of Irela nd.

624 AD - The battle of Ard Corainn was gained by Connadh Cerr, Lord of D al
Riada, where Fiachna, son of Deman, King of Ulidia, was slain.

626 AD - The battle of Leathairbhe between Maelfithrigh, chief of Cinel M ic
Earca, and Ernaine, son of Fiachra, chief of Cinel Fearadhaigh, where M
aelfithrigh, son of Aedh Uairidhnach, was slain.

628 - The battle of Ath Goan, in Iarthar Liffe, by Faelan, son of Colma n; by
Conall, son of Suibhne, chief of Meath; and by Failge, or Failbhe Fl ann, King
of Munster, wherein was slain Crimhthann, son of Aedh, son of Se anach, King
of Leinster, with many others along with him.

630 AD - The two sons of Aedh Slaine were slain by Conall, son of Suibhn e, at
Loch Trethin, at Freamhain, namely, Congal, chief of Breagh, ancest or of the
Ui Conaing, and Ailill Cruitire i.e. the Harper, ancestor of t he Sil
Dluthaigh.
Also... Conall, son of Suibhne, chief of Meath, and Maelumha, son of Foran
nan, were slain by Diarmaid, son of Aedh Slaine.

634 AD - The battle of Magh Rath was gained by Domhnall, son of Aedh, a nd the
sons of Aedh Slaine, over Congal Claen, son of Scannlan, King of Ul idia,
where fell Congal, and the Ulidians and foreigners along with him.
Also.. The battle of Saeltire was gained by Conall Cael, son of Maelcobh a,
over the Cinel Eoghain.

636 AD - Maelodhar Macha, chief of Oirghialla, died.

639 AD - After Domhnall, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, had been sixteen yea rs
in the sovereignty of Ireland, he died at Ard Fothadh, in Tir Aedha, af ter
the victory of penance, for he was a year in his mortal sickness; a nd he used
to receive the body of Christ every Sunday. He was succeed ed by Conall Cael
and Ceallach, two sons of Maelcobha, son of Aedh, s on of Ainmire, over
Ireland, in joint sovereignty.
Also... Oilill, son of Colman, chief of Cinel Laeghaire, died.

640 AD - Scannlan Mor, son of Ceannfaeladh, chief of Osraighe (Ossory), di ed.
Also, Cuana, son of Ailcen, chief of Feara Maighe Fermoy, died.

641 AD - Maelbreasail and Maelanfaidh died; and Flann Enaigh was mortal ly
wounded. These were of the Cinel Conaill Gulban.

642 AD - Furadhran, son of Bec, son of Cuanach, chief of Ui Mic Uais, died .

644 AD - Bolgluatha, Lord of Ui Ceinnsealaigh, died.

645 AD - Raghallach, son of Uatach, King of Connaught, was killed by Maelb
righde, son of Mothlachan.
Also... The battle of Carn Conaill was gained by Diarmaid, son of Aedh Sla ine
against Guaire, wherein were slain the two Cuans, namely, Cuan, s on of Enda,
King of Munster, and Cuan, son of Conall, chief of Ui Fidhgein te; and
Tolamhnach, chief of Ui Liathain; and Guaire was routed from the b attle
field. Diarmaid, on his way to this battle, went first through Clua in Mic
Nois (Clonmacnoise).

647 AD - Dunchadh and Conall, two sons of Blathmac, son of Aedh Slaine, we re
slain by the Leinstermen, in the mill race of the mill of Maelodhran, s on of
Dima Cron. Marcan and Maelodhran mortally wounded the two.

648 AD - The battle of Cuil Corra, by Aeldeith and Onchu, where Cillene, s on
of Forannan, chief of Ui Failghe Offaly, was slain.

649 AD - The battle of Airther Seola, in Connaught, by Ceannfaeladh, s on of
Colgan and Maenach, son of Baeithin, chief of Ui Briuin, in which w as slain
Marcan, son of Toimen, chief of Ui Maine.
Also... Fearghus, son of Domhnall, and Fearghus, son of Raghallach, and Ae dh
Beathra, son of Cuimin, were killed by the Ui Fiachrach Aidhne. Also. ..
Maeldoid, son of Suibhne, chief of Meath, died.

650 AD - The battle of Fleascach, by Crunnmael, son of Suibhne, chief of C
inel Eoghain, in which was slain Cumascach, son of Oilioll, chief of Ui Cr
emhthainn. Also... Crunnmael Erbuilg, son of Ronan, chief of South Leinste r,
died.

656 AD - After Conall and Ceallach, the two sons of Maelcobha, son of Aed h,
son of Ainmire, had been seventeen years over Ireland, Conall was sla in by
Diarmaid, son of Aedh Slaine; and Ceallach died at Brugh Mic An O g. Also...
Blathmac, son of Maelcobha, King of Ulidia, died.
Return to Eoghan Caech macNath`i O'CHEINNSELAIG










































Notes for Nath í macCrimthann O'CHEINNSELAIG


Was King of Leinster for 10 years; baptized in his infancy by St. Patrick
Return to Nath í macCrimthann O'CHEINNSELAIG