Richard de Abrincis, his successor, 2nd Earl of Chester. After he had atta ined maturity, he attached himself faithfully to King Henry I., and nev er subsequently swerved in his allegiance. He married Maud, daughter of St ephen, Earl of Blois, by Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror, but h ad no issue, himself and his countess being soon afterwards among the vict ims of the memorable shipwreck, December 1119, wherein the king's two son s, William and Richard, with their tutor Ottiwell, the earl's bastard brot her, Geoffrey Riddell, his sister Geva's husband, and many others of the n obility perished. Upon the demise thus of Richard de Abrincis, 2nd Ea rl of Chester, the male line of the family became extinct, the earldom pas sed to the deceased nobleman's first cousin, Ranulph de Meschines, s on of Ralph de Meschines, by Maud de Abrincis, sister of Earl Hugh Lupu s. See the continuation of this lineage in the Meschines Line.
Source: Vol II File 20: The Paternal Ancestry of Homer Beers James http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~pmcbride/james/f037.htm Wurts, pp. 106-109. Burke, pp. 386-388. The Mowbrays, Dukes of Norfolk, were from an ancient period a great baroni al family, and made succession of fortunate alliances. The royal mat ch of John Mowbray, Lord Mowbray, with Elizabeth Segrave, whose mother w as Margaret, Countess of Norfolk, daughter and heir of Thomas, Earl of Nor folk, son of Edward I., may be considered the first step from the baroni al rank. King Richard II., constituted Thomas, son of the great allianc e, Earl Marshal in 1386, when his grandmother, Margaret, was also advanc ed to be Duchess of Norfolk. The duke, preparing in 1398 to fight a duel w ith Henry, Duke of Hereford, afterwards King Henry IV., was banished and d ied in exile the next year. The family was restored and continued for fo ur generations down to Anne, the infant daughter and heiress of John, 4 th duke, whom King Edward IV., married, as a child, to his 2nd son, Richar d, Duke of York, then a young boy, and he made a settlement of the title a nd estate upon him and his heirs. She died immediately afterwards, in 147 8, but the Duke of York continued in possession till he was murdered wi th his brother, King Edward V., by his uncle, Richard, on June 20, 1483. A ll Edward's plans for seizing the Mowbray property being thus terminate d, and Richard III., wishing to secure vigorous allies, the successi on to the estates were allowed to open to the Berkeleys and Howards, the h eirs of the daughters of the duke. who died in exile in 1400, eighty-thr ee years before, and King Richard,, on the 3rd day of his reign, June 2 8, 1483, created William Berkeley, Viscount Berkeley, Earl of Nottingha m, and John Howard, Lord Howard (who had been raised to be a baron by h is brother, Edward), at once Duke of Norfolk and Marshal of England (Burk e, pg. 386). Nigel de Albini (d'Aubigny), became one of the greatest landowners in Engl and and is the only member of the family recorded in Domesday, having rece ived grants of several lordships in Buckingham, Leicester, Bedford, and Wa rwick, as he succeeded to the estates of his father and grandfathe r. He is reputed to have possessed 120 manors in Normandy and as many in E ngland, including the great domain of the Earl of Mowbray, which came to h im through his wife, confiscated from his cousin, Robert de Mowbray, Ea rl of Northumberland, given by Henry I., on the condition that their elde st son would take the name of Mowbray. His son took the name of Mowbr ay on inheriting the estates of the family. He lived to a very great ag e, and died in 1138. Additional Information Nigil (Nele) de Albini (d'Aubigny), the younger son of Roger de Albini a nd the brother of William de Albini, was the founder of the family from wh ich the ancient Earls of Arundel descended. The Albinis, who were maternal ly of the house of Mowbray, came into England with William the Conquero r, and obtained large possessions after the victory at Hastings. Nigil's g rants lay in the cos. Bucks, Bedford, Warwick, and Leicester, and compris ed several extensive lordships. In the reign of Rufus, he was bow-bear er to the king; and being knighted by King Henry I., had the manor of Egma nton, with divers parks in the forest of Shirwood, of that monarch's gif t; which lordship he transferred however, to his particular friend, Robe rt Davil. But when King Henry had further experience with his valor and mi litary skill, he augmented his royal bounty, and conferred upon him the va vassories of Camville and Wyvile; which gracious marks of favor so attach ed Albini to the interests of the his sovereign, that he espoused with t he most devoted zeal the cause of Henry, against his brother, Robert Curth ose, and took a conspicuous part in the battle of Tenercheby in 1106, he t here slew the horse of Curthose, and brought the prince himself to the kin g; for which eminent service the king granted him the English lands of Rob ert de Stuteville, Baron of Frontebeof, which Frontebeof had fortifi ed in behalf of Curthose. During the Norman rebellion, he, with his brothe r, William de Albini, remained faithful to King Henry I. and fought for h im at the victory over the French king at Bremule on August 20, 1119. He h ad a grant of Montbrai or Mowbray and the other forfeited lands in Norman dy and England of Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, his matern al uncle; as also his castles, with the castle of Bayeux and its appurtene nces; so that he had no less than 120 knight's fees in Normandy, and a s m any in England; thus becoming one of the most powerful persons of the peri od in which he lived. He married after 1107 (1) Maud Aquila, daughter of R ichard de Aquila, 2nd baron of Aquila, by permission of Pope Paschall; h er husband, Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, before-mentioned, b eing then alive, and in prison for rebellion against King William Rufus; f rom this lady he was, however, divorced, on account of consanguity, a nd by her had no issue. He married in June 1118 (2) by the special advi se of King Henry I., Gundred de Gourney, sister of Hugh and daughter of Ge rald de Gourney, who died in 1096, and his wife, Edith, daughter of Willia m, 1st Earl of Surrey,
Roger de Albini (d'Aubigny) , married Amicia, sister of Geoffrey, Bish op of Coutances, according to Orderic Vital, "one of the bishops with atte ndant clerks and monks, whose duty it was to aid the war with their praye rs and councils." Amicia also had another brother, Roger de Montbray (Mowb ray).
William de Albini, 2nd Earl of Arundel and Sussex, had a grant from the cr own, in the 23rd year of King Henry II., of the Earldom of Sussex, a nd in the first year of King Richard I., had a confirmation from that prin ce, of the castle and honor of Arundel, as also of the Tertium Denari um of the county of Sussex. He died in 1196, and was succeeded by his so n, William.
William de Albini (d'Aubigny), III, surnamed "William with the strong hand ," from the following circumstance, as related by William Dugdale: "It happened that the Queen of France, being then a widow, and a very beau tiful woman, became much in love with a knight from an other country, w ho was a comely person, and in the flower of his youth; and because she th ought that no man excelled him in valor, she caused a tournament to be pro claimed throughout her dominions, promising to reward those who should exe rcise themselves therein, according to their respective abilities; and con cluded that if the person whom she so well affected should act his part be tter than others in those military exercises, she might marry him witho ut any dishonor to herself. Hereupon divers gallant men, from foreign par ts hasting to Paris, amongst others came this our William de Albini, brave ly accoutered, and in the tournament excelled all others, overcoming man y, and wounding one mortally with his lance, which being observed by the q ueen, she became exceedingly enamored of him, and forthwith invited h im to a costly banquet, and afterwards bestowing certain jewels upon hi m, offered him marriage; but, having plighted his troth to the Queen of En gland, then a widow, he refused her, whereat she grew so discontented th at she consulted with her maids how she might take away his life; and in p ursuance of that design, inticed him into a garden, where there was a secr et cave, and in it a fierce lion, unto which she descended by divers step s, under color of showing him the beast; and when she told him of its fier ceness, he answered, that it was a womanish and not a manly quali ty to be afraid thereof. But having him there, by the advantage of a foldi ng door, thrust him to the lion; being therefore in this danger, he roll ed his mantle about his arm, and putting his hand into the mouth of the be ast, pulled out his tongue by the root; which done, he followed the que en to her palace, and gave it to one of her maids to present her. Returni ng thereupon to England, with the fame of this glorious exploit, he was fo rthwith advanced to the Earldom of Arundel, and for his arms the Lion giv en him." He subsequently married Adeliza of Lorraine, Queen of England, widow of Ki ng Henry I., and the daughter of Godfrey, Duke of Lorraine. See her ancest ral lineage elsewhere in Volume I. Adeliza had the castle of Arundel in do wry from her deceased husband, the monarch, and thus her new lord became i ts feudal earl, 1st Earl of Arundel in this family. The earl was one of th ose who solicited the Empress Maud to come to England, and received her a nd her brother Robert, Earl of Gloucester, at the port of Arundel, in Augu st 1139, and in three years afterwards (1142), in the report made of Ki ng Stephen's taking William de Mandeville at St. Albans, it is stated "th at before he could be laid hold on, he underwent a sharp skirmish with t he king's party, wherein the Earl of Arundel, though a stout and expert so ldier, was unhorsed in the midst of the water by Walceline de Oxeai, and a lmost drowned." In 1150, he wrote himself Earl of Chichester, but we fi nd him styled again Earl of Arundel, upon a very memorable occasion, namel y, the reconciliation of Henry, Duke of Normandy, afterwards King Henry II ., and King Stephen at the siege of Wallingford Castle in 1152. "It was sc arce possible," says Rapin, "for the armies to part without fighting. Acco rdingly the two leaders were preparing for battle with equal ardor, whe n, by the prudent advice of the Earl of Arundel, who was on the king's sid e, they were prevented from coming to blows." A truce and peace followed t his interference of the earl's, which led to the subsequent accession of H enry after Stephen's decease, in whose favor the earl stood so high th at he not only obtained for himself and his heirs the castle and hon or of Arundel, but a confirmation of the Earldom of Sussex, of which coun ty he was really earl, by a grant of the Tertium Denarium of the ple as of the shire. In 1164, we find the Earl of Arundel deputed with Gilbe rt Foliot, Bishop of London, to remonstrate with Louis, King of France, up on according an asylum to Thomas a Becket within his dominions, and on t he failure of that mission, dispatched with the archbishop of York, the Bi shops of Winchester, London, Chichester, and Exeter, Wido Rufus, Richa rd de Invecestre, John de Oxford (priests), Hugh de Gundevile, Berna rd de St. Valery, and Henry Fitzgerald, to lay the whole affair of Beck et at the foot of the pontifical throne. Upon levying the aid for the marr iage of the king's daughter, in the 12th year of Henry II., the knight's f ees of the honor of Arundel were certified to be ninety-seven, and tho se in Norfolk, belonging to the earl, forty-two. In 1173, we find the Ea rl of Arundel commanding, in conjunction with William, Earl of Mandevill e, the king's army in Normandy, and compelling the French monarch to aband on Verneuil after a long siege, and in the next year, with Richard de Luc y, Justice of England, defeating Robert, Earl of Leicester, then in rebell ion at St. Edmundbury. This potent nobleman, after founding and endowing s everal religious houses, died at Waverley, in Surrey, on October 3, 117 6, and was buried in the Abbey of Wymondham.
William de Albini, 3rd Earl of Arundel and Sussex, who, in 1218, embark ed in the Crusade, and was at the celebrated siege of Damietta, but di ed in returning, in the year 1221.
William de Albini (d'Aubigny) II, surnamed Pincerna, whose posterity assum ed, and attained such eminence under the name of Mowbray (see that linea ge elsewhere), accompanied William the Conqueror into England, and acquir ed extensive territorial possessions by royal grants in Norfolk and oth er counties. Of these grants was the lordship of Bokenham, to be held by t he service of being Butler to the Kings of England on the day of their cor onation, and in consequence we find this William styled in divers charte rs "Pincerna Henrici Regis Anglorum." William de Albini founded the Abb ey of Wymondham in Norfolk. William de Albini also gave to the monks of Rochester the tithes of his ma nor of Elham; as also one carucate of land in Achestede, with a wood call ed Acholte. He likewise bestowed upon the Abbey of St. Etienne at Cae n, in Normandy, all his lands lying in Stavell, which grant he made in t he presence of King Henry and his barons. He married Maud Bigod, daught er of Roger Bigod, with whom he obtained ten knight's fees in Norfolk.
Source: Royal Ancestors of Some American Families by Michel Call SLC 19 89 #565,583
Source: Royal Ancestors of Some American Families by Michel Call SLC 19 89 #565,583
Sources: Medieval Sourcebook: Chronicle of the Counts of Anjou, c. 110 0, © Trans. Steve Lane [slane@@tezcat.com]; From Louis Halphen and René Pou pardin, Chroniques des Comtes d'Anjou et des Seigneurs d'Amboise (Paris: P icard 1913). This Fulk the Pious had three sons, of whom the eldest, Geoffrey, rul ed as consul. Another, named Guido, was bishop of Puy. The youngest, call ed Drogo, was well-loved by Fulk, who had fathered him in his old ag e; he was trained in letters and the liberal arts, and succeeded his broth er Guido as bishop of Puy, with the blessing of king Hugh. The consul Geof frey, trained as a knight in the French style, a man full of martial vig or in arm and breast, proved himself outstanding over the course of many e xpeditions. He glowed with a special serenity, mercy flourished in hi m; he cultivated a special generosity, opposed his enemies fiercely, and p rotected his own people vigorously, all of which things befit the be st of princes. Because of his outstanding and singular merit, the king ma de him and his heirs standard-bearers in battle and cup-bearers at the roy al coronation; the count, wearing the nickname Greymantle, won the highe st rewards for his uprightness. In those days the Dane Huasten raided the coastal regions of Gaul f or three years, and finally went to his brothers Edward and Hilduin, who w ere consuls of Flanders, with fifteen thousand Danes and Saxons, having wi th him Hethelulf, a man of great size and strength, called Hautuin in t he French language. The Danes and the Sueves ran all through the lan ds of the Franks, and did great harm to the towns and castles with their p lunder and arson. When, with fire and sword and the aid of the Flemish, th ey had passed thorugh nearly all of the depopulated land near Flanders whi ch the Franks inhabit, they decided to pass over to Paris and scatter terr or all through that area. They then came into that pleasant and lovely val ley called Montmorency, the castle of which they captured and fortified, a nd decided to stay for a while in the area of Paris. Out of fear of the ir daring the king ordered his nobles to gather from all quarters at the t ime of Pentecost at Paris, seeing that he himself had no resources to fig ht back with, since the Franks who had been compelled to take refuge with in the walls of Paris did not dare try to break out. Day by day Hethelu lf the Dane harangued the Frankish armies, and came before the city of Par is like another Goliath, looking to fight a single combat with one of t he Franks. He vanquished and killed many knights from among the noblest a nd mightiest of the Franks; the king, stirred up with grief, forbade anyo ne else to venture forth to fight with him. Geoffrey count of Anjou, when he had heard the royal messenger who was sum moning him to come to the king's Pentecost court, made his arrangements f or the castle of Landonense, which was his, before the appointed day, a nd came to Orléans a few days before the Ascension. There, when he had hea rd all about the strength and cruelty of the Dane, like a magnanimous m an who hides his anger when talking with a friend, ordered his men to go b efore him to the castle of Landonense and await him there. Keeping on ly a single knight and two squires with him, he withdrew from his men in s ecret and stopped at Êtampes, warning his comrades to reveal themselv es to no one. The next day the consul set out secretly on his journey. He turned asi de at the castle of St.-Germain, not far from the city of Paris, and order ed the miller who watched over the mills on the Seine to make him a fitti ng boat at [Geoffrey's] expense. Wishing to stay hidden, the consul spe nt the night in the miller's house. In the morning, with a single knight a nd his horse, he went across the Seine in the company of two millers. Wh en he had seen and heard the Dane, the count growled and quickly mounted h is horse and, leaving his friends in the boat, went forth alone to meet t he Dane in an open field; the Dane road towards him, urging his steed on w ith his heels. The count pierced him through the breast, so that the lan ce came out through his armor, and thus struck him to the earth. The cou nt withdrew unharmed, but the Dane, who had received a tremendous blow whi ch had split his shield and breastplate, and whose lance was broken, withd rew the count's iron lodged in his left side and wounded the count's hor se in its back leg. The count, seeing the Dane groaning and struggli ng to rise, savage-eyed and still full of menace, drew his own sword and c ut off the Dane's head, like another David. Then he swiftly mounted his ho rse again and huried with the enemy's horse and his head, to the boa t. On the other side, the count handed over the head to be brought into t he city [Paris]. He himself returned in secret to his men at Landonense, o rdering his friends along the way not reveal who he was. Many were watching from the lookouts of the walls and ramparts and from t he church-spires [of Paris]; though they did now know who he was, they env ied his good fortune. The citizens, though, rejoiced in their lord Chris t, and giving great thanks they scattered outside the city walls. The head -bearer then entered the city and, in the presence of the king, swore he d id not know the knight's identity, as one he had never seen. But, if he we re to see him, he was sure he would recognize him. The king, forming a pl an in his heart, remained silent for the moment. Now the Danes, grieving a nd roused to great anger, fiercely beset the Franks and would on no accou nt stop their attacks against them. They left Montmorency despoiled and af lame, and ravaged all the places of Senlis and Soissons up to Laon. N ow on the appointed day the princes who had been summoned, namely the duk es and consuls and the magnates of all France, and all of those of high bi rth, known for their skill, gathered in the royal hall. Geoffrey cou nt of Anjou, garbed in a tunic of that cloth which the French call grisetu m, and we Angevins buretum, seated himself among the princes. Now t he miller, who had been summoned for this purpose by the king, knew Geoffr ey the moment he laid eyes on him and, with the king's permission, approac hed the consul with a joyous expression. On bended knee, having grasped t he count's tunic, he said to the king and the others, "this man, in this g rey shirt, struck down the Dane and lifted away the shame of the Franks, a nd struck terror into their army." The king proclaimed that thereaft er he should be called Geoffrey Greymantle, and the whole assembly gave i ts assent. While this was going on, messengers suddenly appeared, anouncing that t he Danes had made camp in the valley of Soissons; innumerable Flemish knig hts had joined them, since they have a great many people in the duchy. Wh en the king heard this, he addressed the nobles thus: "You see, best of me n, that I cannot recount without great weeping the many calamities and dif ficulties with which the Frankish people have been beset. What can I s ay to the common people, when many of you, sprung from noble bloodlines, g row pale with hunger, and the plague of the Danes contaminates your labor s? Already your fields, laid waste, are rarely if ever touched by the plo w. Let not, I beseech you, the praise of the Franks be debased by our o wn negligence. O unbroken race [genus]! O unconquered people [gens]! Be n ot afraid. Things are at their worst, the battle at its most fierce, the e nemy in his numbers is close by. Go forth, mightiest of knights! Behold, t he hour of battle is at hand; stir up your warlike strength and show yo ur ancestral might when the time comes. What good are words? Let each m an now take counsel with himself." The nobility now worried over what t he king had said. Some of them answered: "We can give no opinion about t he battle at present, but we recommend that for the moment a truce be mad e, and battle be postponed until our strength is greater." But Geoffrey Gr eymantle, adding his own advice, spoke his opinion: "You, consular lords a nd illustrious men, light and flower of victorious France, honor and mirr or of a battle-ready knighthood, fight on your own behalf, and lay down yo ur souls for your brothers. Shall we watch the people, which committed its elf to us and to the king, die unavenged? I see that you are all of one sp irit, thanks be to God, and that none of you disagrees with his fellow. H ow does the lord differ from the serf, the noble from the commoner, the ri ch man from the poor, the knight from the footman, unless the advi ce of we who watch over them is of some good, unless our own aid protec ts them? If the Danes are to rule over me unpunished, I no longer wa nt to live. Dying ingloriously is worth the same as being compared to stup id beasts, being likened to brute animals. All of you should hunger for ba ttle, because you all believe this will be necessary for the common goo d. This is the course I myself suggest, and earnestly demand; I ask th at we not die like slothful or imbecilic creatures, that we not be a disgr ace and an infamy to all peoples." At these words they all went forth, not without great sorrow on the pa rt of those they were leaving behind. Neither these nor the ones who we re leaving thought they would ever again enjoy the sight of the other; th ey rushed together in the kisses of loved ones, and all were moved to tear s. They came then to the valley of Soissons and entered a valley, love ly in its levelness; there, each one disposed and decorated his own troop s. The chief men discussed how the battle was to be fought, and this th ey entrusted to the Angevin Geoffrey. "Well," said Geoffrey, "each of y ou go and gather your men, and come to the battle with your troops when t he sign is given. Then, where it is necessary, conduct the battle with lan ces and swords, and remember the deeds done and the blows struck by our fa thers." Six lines were set up: five went out to sustain the brunt of the b attle and to fend off the enemy's army with a fierce fight. The king ca me afterward, with his own troop, to see how the battle went, and to gi ve aid, and to take up the battle if the Danes were winning out. The trumpets blared, the horns resounded, a great cry from each side was h eard; shield was thrust back by shield, boss was repelled by boss; once la nces had been shattered, swords themselves were being notched and scarre d. The ranks of the Danes and Flemish came up into hand-to-hand battle, ov ertook the French and began to drive them back. They were unable to withst and the rush of so many nations [nationes], but, staggering, began inste ad to contemplate retreat. So great was the [size] and noise of the clo ud of missiles that the air itself seemed to grow dark. The king beg an to moan: he looked around at all his men like one gifted with second si ght and said "O Christ, come to the aid of your Franks!" and to Geoffre y, who was carrying the king's standard, he added (by means of a messenger ), "Geoffrey, spur on your swift steed and come to the aid of the totteri ng Franks. Be mindful, I beseech you, of your ancestors, that you in no w ay besmirch the reputation of the Franks." Geoffrey, guarded by the si gn of the holy cross and surrounded by his followers, was quick among t he armies, and was opposed by one of the bravest of the Danish knights. Ge offrey had ridden up against the heathen, to make the pennons of the roy al standard dance in the faces of the Danes, and to put some fear into th em with his loud battle-cry. With this advance by their chief centurion,[1 2] the Franks, taking courage again, rushed wildly on the Danes all at on ce with their weapons drawn. there was a great shattering of armor and wea pons, and a clear fire flared from the bronze helms. Wounds were dashed ag ainst wounds and the fields were darkened with much blood. You would ha ve seen hanging intestines, heads cut off, dismembered bodies on all side s. The Danes were seized with a swift and sudden terror; tottering in the ir ranks, they gave themselves up to flight. The Franks followed them, str iking them down, slaying them, trampling them underfoot. Many knights a nd footmen died there, and their leaders were found thereafter, dead in t he midst of five thousand of their troops. Having won a great victory, t he Franks returned rejoicing to their own people, bring with them many cap tured horses and much plunder which they had taken in the battle. Then the re was great rejoicing in France, and all gave the proper thanks to God. Now it was from the regions of Germany that a new war arose. A certain Teu ton of Swabia, called Edelthed, who was of the stock [genus] of Faramund a nd Clovis, was seeking the kingship of the Franks by hereditary right. Wi th the aid of Otto, king of Italy, he assaulted Lotharingia and the upp er parts of France. He complained publicly about the agreements king Hu gh had made in a conference in the presence of Henry, duke of Lotharingi a, Richard count of Normandy, and Geoffrey of Anjou, namely that Hugh shou ld give up the kingdom of the Franks to him [Edelthed]; Edelthed felt th at king Hugh should at least give him the leadership of France, as Hugh h ad possessed it once. He said that the rest of the princes and many of t he magnates had pledged their faith to this. The others hesitated, and Geo ffrey Greymantle got up and said : ... "I will not permit that you shou ld rule over us. I deny that the king, or I or my colleagues has giv en an untrue oath." Bertold, brother of the duke of Saxony, a man perfect ly made, offered to fight on the Teuton's behalf, and said "let our pee rs and equals judge what is best, for this is a dispute which cannot be qu elled." The great men of each side were brought together, and heard the co mplaints of each party. A messenger was sent to one party and this answ er came back to the waiting judges: "we have agreed among ourselves that w hoever wins the case will hold the kingdom in peace; the other will lea ve the kingdom and live his life in peace." This was all granted, and p ut in writing by the bishop's hand, with the parties prepared to acce de to it. The queen, a kinswomen of Geoffrey of Anjou, sent him a part of the gird le of the blessed virgin Mary, which she had in her chapel, an item Charl es the Bald had brought back from Byzantium; she ordered him to tie it aro und his neck, and assured him this would bring him victory. Geoffrey we nt forth to do battle, animated now by an even greater faith. Berthold w as a man of such strength and hostility that it was believed no one wou ld dare to come out against him. He said: "let him come, send him out. I s hall smother him like a wretched puppy who has dared to enter a battle." B attle was joined, and the fight raged fiercely. Neither fell at the fir st onslaught, but Berthold was gravely wounded by the count between the sh oulder blades, as he was turning his horse; his blood poured forth. Both f ought fiercely and relentlessly, their brazen helms echoed, and no quart er was given them. Berthold fell from his horse, and got to his feet at on ce; the consul, full of zeal, got down as well. You would have seen the ir bodies drenched in blood and sweat, hands beating against hands, feet a gainst feet, bodies against bodies. In the end Bertold's breastplate was b roken and his entrails spilled, and that mightiest of warriors, Geoffrey G reymantle, was victorious. The Franks gave thanks to Christ, and they he ld a solemn celebration and offered fitting praises to God. The Theutons w ith their duke Edelthed returned in confusion to their own lands. Geoffr ey sought permission from the king and queen to return to his own lands; t he girdle was given to him, as he deserved, and he had it placed in the ch urch of the blessed Virgin Mary in Loches, where he installed canons to li ve there and at the same time endowed the church richly from his own good s. After these things, with the enemy turned back and beaten down with God 's favor, Geoffrey lived many years and ruled his lands in peace. [d. 987 ]. No one dared mutter a word against him. He brought forth many son s, of whom the youngest, called Maurice, outlived the others while their f ather was still alive.
Sources: Medieval Sourcebook: Chronicle of the Counts of Anjou, c. 110 0, © Trans. Steve Lane [slane@@tezcat.com]; From Louis Halphen and René Pou pardin, Chroniques des Comtes d'Anjou et des Seigneurs d'Amboise (Paris: P icard 1913). There was a certain man of Armorica Gallia called Torquatius, whose race [ genus] was of old expelled from Armorica by the Bretons at the order of t he emperor Maximus. This man was given the corrupt name of Tortulfus by t he Bretons, who were ignorant of the proper use of the old Roman name. Cha rles the Bald, in the year in which he expelled the Normans from Anjou a nd from his whole realm, made this man the forester of the forest called B lackbird's Nest. As many relate the story, his race [genus] lived for a lo ng time in the forests, despite the opposition of the Bretons. This man w as a countryman who had grown up in the pays de Redon [pagus Redonicu s, an area of southwest Brittany], lived off of his hunting skills and t he abundance of the wild: men of this sort (as some tell it) the Bretons c all birgi, while we Franks call them "huntsmen." There are also others w ho think this man lived in villages with the peasants of Redon. Which of t hese two is more accurate is not very important, since those who pass t he stories on are not in much disagreement, and no wonder: for we have oft en read of senators who were working in the fields and were snatched aw ay to become emperors. In this man, since he was plainly great by birt h, the weapons of old age, namely the skill and exercise of virtues, broug ht forth wondrous fruit, and the knowledge of a life well spent and the me mory of his good deeds was extremely pleasing to him. Now this man brought forth Tertullus, reckoned by the ancient genealogi es of the tale-tellers [relatores] as the first of the stock [progenie s] of the counts of Anjou. It is know that this Tertullus, a man of keen m ind, overcoming his own lot and unstable circumstances by the bigness of h is spirit, began to desire greater things for himself, and dared to stri ve for them. Now around the time in which Charles the Bald, son of Louis a nd nephew of the emperor Charlemagne, was made a king, one of the triarch y, though he did not reign for long, the same Tertullus, leaving the confi nes of his father's holdings, and, trusting in his own resources, wishi ng and hoping to make more of himself, came from the western regions in to France proper and went to bear arms in the king's clientele. At that ti me a great many others, well aware of their own strength in arms, hungry f or fame and honors and hoping to better themselves through their own stren gth, converged from many diverse regions, beckoned by the bounty of the ro yal munificence, and incited by the opportunities of the age. Now when the same king Charles, after long dissensions, after severe wa rs waged against his own brothers, emerged as victor and survivor, an emul ator of his grandfather's uprightness and glory and the survivor of many s truggles; nor would he have been much short of filling the void [that i s, exercising unhindered kingship] had the briefness of life not caug ht up with him: for he was hastening to patch up, with a wondrous wisdom a nd goodness, all the evils which had fallen on the kingdom and the republ ic during the earlier struggles with his brothers. He had destroyed the ty ranny of Nominöe, pseudo-king of the Bretons, since the latter was alrea dy powerfully opposed by the will of God and of his saints, especial ly by the aid of St. Florentius; and he tamed the treacheries of many oth er enemies as well. For God, glorious and wondrous in his saints, shows Hi mself to be more wondrous and glorious still when he works wonders throu gh them. Charles also pressed back the hostility of the Normans, a hostility with w hich they had first devastated, then violently possessed, that fringe of o ur land of Gaul which touches upon Ocean. He avenged their violence, and r educed their power to naught. On this account, soldiers flocked to him fr om all quarters: these men he took to himself and held them dear, and whom ever he esteemed above the others he honored, and lauded him in proporti on his strength and his faithfulness. Among these men he held Tertullus dear, of whom we are speaking, for his m erits, and gave him a wife and a piece of a fief in the castle of Landonen se, and gave him a holding made up of some other lands, both in the Gâti ne and in other places of France. But at that moment the king, with the gr eater part of his undertakings interrupted by the sudden destruction of h is kingdom, before the peace and reconstruction he had envisioned [cou ld be accomplished], according to the permission of God, in whose hand l ie all powers and kingdoms, was taken from wordly affairs by a premature d eath, bringing on France a calamity which would endure a long time. He left behind a son, heir to his kingdom, called Louis, who had retain ed only the name of his grandfather. Now this one was vastly inferi or in character to his father and grandfather, and indeed to all of his ro yal ancestors, and lived such a useless life that his inertia won him t he nickname Do-Nothing. In the time of his wretched rulership the Norma ns and some other men of an evil and tyrannical disposition, having regath ered their strength, flared up into malice again, and reveled for a long t ime in a land deprived of its governor. The Normans, having well and cruel ly outstripped the limits of their earlier invasion and plunder, depopulat ed Neustria and much of Aquitaine with theft, arson and murder.
Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine - was born in 1123 in Chateau De Belin, Bordeau x, Aquitaine and died on 31 Mar 1204 in Poitiers, Poitou, Aquitaine . S he was the daughter of Duke Guillaume X of Aquitaine and Eleanor de Chatel lerault. Queen Eleanor married King Henry II "Curtmantle" Plantagenet on 18 May 11 52 in Bordeaux, Gironde, France. King Henry was born on 5 Mar 1132 in Sart he, France. He was the son of Count Geoffrey V "le Bon" - "The Handsome" P lantagenet. He died on 3 Jul 1189 in Chinon, Indre-et-Loire, France and w as buried on 19 Dec 1154 in Westminster Abbey, London, England. King Henry - was King of England from 1154 to 1189. He succeeded Stephan a fter invading England in 1153 to promote his claim after Stephen elbowed H enry's mother. Matilda, from the throne. In 1164 Henry became involved in a quarrel with Thomas a Becket whom he h ad appointed archbishop of canterbury. The controversy ended in 1160 wi th Becket's murder by four of Henry's knights. From the beginning of his reign, Henry was involved in conflict with Lou is Vii, King of France, and later with Louis's successor Philip Ii, over t he French provinces that Henry claimed. A succession of rebellions again st Henry, headed by his sons and furthered by Philip II and by Elean or of Aquitane began in 1173 and continued until his death in 1189. During his mother's conflict with Stephen for the English throne he was br ought to England. Stephen eventually recognized his claim, and Henry beca me king of England in 1154 after Stephen's death. Henry II held England and Normandy by his mother's right. From his fath er he inherited, as French fiefs, the important counties of Anjou, Main e, and Touraine. By his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marria ge with the French king Louis VII had been annulled, he acquired Poitou, G uyenne, and Gascony, so that he held most of the British Isles and about h alf of France. Henry II reestablished law and order after the anarchy of Stephen's reig n. He improved the military service by permitting the barons to pay "shie ld money," or scutage, in place of serving in the army. With this he hir ed soldiers who would fight whenever and wherever he wished--an importa nt means of maintaining control over the powerful nobles of the land. His greatest work was the reform of the law courts. He brought the Curia R egis (King's Court) into every part of England by sending learned judg es on circuit through the land to administer the "king's justice." Thus gr adually one system of law took the place of the many local customs that h ad been in use. He also established the grand jury. Now accusations cou ld be brought by a body of representatives of the community against evildo ers who were so powerful that no single individual dared accuse them. The petit jury, also called petty or trial jury, substituted the weighi ng of evidence and testimony by sworn men for the old superstitious tri al by combat or by ordeal. Henry even attempted to bring churchmen who com mitted crimes under the jurisdiction of the king's courts, but the scand al caused by the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket in the course of th is quarrel forced him to give up this reform. Henry's last years were embittered by the rebellion of his sons, aid ed by Philip Augustus of France and by their mother, the unscrupulous Elea nor. The king--old, sick, and discouraged--had to consent to the terms dem anded of him. When he saw the name of John, his favorite son, among tho se of his enemies, he exclaimed, "Now let all things go as they will; I ca re no more for myself, nor for the world." Two days later he died, muttering, "Shame, shame on a conquered king ." He was succeeded by his son Richard I, called Richard the Lion-Hearte d. After Richard's death, in 1199, John came to the throne. In 1151, Henry burned the town of Nottingham and Nottingham Castle. Willi am Peveril, constable and grandson of the original builder, fled from t he Castle to his monastery at Lenton disguised as a monk before going abro ad. Henry Ii provided the wherewithal to repair the town and fortify the Cast le more in keeping with a royal residence. Several new buildings were cons tructed including the 'King's bed chamber', a 'house for the King's falcon s', and a great hall with aisles in the centre of the Middle Bailey whi ch would hold parliaments and entertainments. At times Henry II held his w ife Eleanor of Aquitaine in confinement at Nottingham Castle amongst oth er castles Then Queen Eleanor married King Louis VII of France. King Louis was bo rn in 1119/1120 in Reims, Champagne, France. He was the son of King Lou is VI "Louis the Fat" of France and Countess Alix of Savoie. He di ed on 18 Sep 1180 in Paris, Isle De France, France . King Louis - Louis VII (born 1120, ruled 1137-80) was the eldest son of Lo uis VI. Shortly before his death, Louis VI arranged for his son's marria ge to Eleanor of Aquitaine. By this marriage southwest France was add ed to the domains of the new French king. Unfortunately Louis, who was ve ry religious and prone to be jealous, soon discovered that his beautiful q ueen was a capricious flirt. In 1147 Louis departed for the Holy Land on t he Second Crusade, taking his queen with him. This Crusade was a miserab le failure. After they returned, Louis had his marriage annulled in 115 2. Eleanor at once sent an embassy to Henry, count of Anjou and duke of No rmandy, proposing marriage. Henry was overjoyed because the alliance trans ferred to him the great duchy of Guienne. Two years later Henry and Elean or were crowned king and queen of England. France thus lost a rich territo ry to England, its greatest rival. Queen Eleanor - In an age known largely for the exploits of kings, prince s, dukes, and their warriors, Eleanor of Aquitaine stood out as one of t he most remarkable of women. She was the wife and mother of kings and a do minant political force in the Europe of her time. When her fagther died in 1137 she inherited his domain, which was larger t han that ruled by the king of France. The same year she married the he ir to the French throne, who became King Louis Vii a month afterward. Duri ng their 15-year marriage, she exerted considerable influence upon the run ning of the country and even accompanied him on the Second Crusade from 11 47 to 1149. His jealousy led to separation, and the marriage was annulle d; but she regained possession of Aquitaine. In 1152 she married Henry Plantagenet, who became Henry Ii of England t wo years later. Together they had eight children, among whom were Richa rd I the Lion-Hearted and John, both of whom later became kings of Englan d. This union brought together England, Aquitaine, Anjou, and Normandy und er one rule. Two centuries later England's various French possessions beca me an underlying cause of the Hundred Years' War. After the revolt of her sons against Henry Ii, Eleanor was kept in semi-co nfinement from 1174 to 1189, when Henry died. She then became active in af fairs of state under her son Richard I and, after his death without an he ir in 1199, under John. She worked for peace between France and England a nd helped preserve John's French domains. Eleanor died on April 1, 120 4, in the monastery at Fontevrault in Anjou. (Sources: - 1)